Shape-Memory Polymers for Aerospace Applications

Novel Synthesis, Modeling, Characterization and Design

Edited by: Gyaneshwar Tandon and Jeffery Baur, U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), and Amber McClung, St. Mary’s University

978-1-60595-118-8, © 2016, 658 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Shape-memory polymer chemistry and design for active materials and morphing structures
  • Covers shape memory in polymers, alloys and composites, including models and testing
  • Essential equations for analysis of the structure, behavior and properties of SMPs
  • Many graphs and figures in full color

A technical analysis of shape-memory polymers (SMPs) and their composites, particularly in adaptive materials, this volume introduces designs linking SMPs to metals, elastomers, foams, nanoparticles and other materials, as well as the engineering of SMPs directly into parts and active (morphing) components. Attention is given to controlled structures activated by light, heat, electricity and other energy sources, as well as the connection of SMPs with actuators. Part one discusses the activation and analysis of the shape memory response, including shape recovery. Subsequent chapters offer modeling and other tools for investigating the SMP response, including shape recovery. Part three combines the response with micro- and macro-scale reinforcing phases for producing SMP composites, and the following section discusses synthetic and nanostructured customization of the shape memory polymer response. The final section focuses on specific SMP concepts in aircraft, including morphing skins, wings, unimorph composite actuators for deployment, and variable stiffness elements.

Preface

Chapter 1. Controlled Activation Schemes of SMPs for Aerospace Applications
Harper Meng and Guoqiang Li
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Aerospace Applications and Controlled Activation
1.3. Stepwise SME with Well-Separated Thermal Transitions
1.4. Stepwise SME with a Broad Switching Transition
1.5. Spatially Controlled SME
1.6. Two-Way Shape Changing Effect
1.7. Future Research Trends
1.8. References

Chapter 2. Environmental Durability of Shape Memory Polymers and Composites
Y. C. Lu, G. P. Tandon and Jeffery W. Baur
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Experimental
2.3. Results and Discussion
2.4. Conclusions
2.5. References

Chapter 3. Compression Behavior of Adaptive Polymer Foams
Matthew Di Prima and Ken Gall
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Compressive Characterization
3.3. Factors Affecting Compressive Performance
3.4. Compressive Modeling
3.5. Practical Applications
3.6. Conclusion
3.7. References

Chapter 4. Microvascular Activation of Shape Memory Polymers
David M. Phillips and Jeffery W. Baur
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Vasculature in Composites
4.3. Thermal Modeling
4.4. Case Studies
4.5. Conclusions
4.6. References

Chapter 5. Light Activated Shape Memory Polymers: Characterization of Elastic Modulus Evolution
Richard Beblo and Lisa Weiland
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Experimental Characterization
5.3. Experimental Results
5.4. Chemical Kinetic Model
5.5. Model Development
5.6. Model Results and Predictions
5.7. Conclusions
5.8. References

Chapter 6. Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Electromagnetics of Azobenzene Liquid Crystal Polymer Networks
William S. Oates and Jonghoon Bin
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Governing Equations
6.3. Thermodynamic Balance Relations
6.4. Free Energy Relations
6.5. Numerical Analysis
6.6. Discussion
6.7. Concluding Remarks
6.8. Acknowledgements
6.9. Appendix
6.10. References

Chapter 7. Viscoelasticity Based Models for Thermally Activated Systems
Kai Yu and H. Jerry Qi
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Glass Transition and Shape Memory Mechanism for Amorphous Polymers
7.3. Constitutive Models for SMPs Based on Glass Transition
7.4. Modeling of Solvent-induced Shape-Memory Behavior
7.5. Future Work
7.6. References

Chapter 8. Internal Variable Based Phase-Transition Models for Thermally-Actuated Shape Memory Polymers
Brent L. Volk, Duncan J. Maitland and Dimitris C. Lagoudas
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Basic Assumptions
8.3. Choice of Internal Variables
8.4. Kinematic Assumptions
8.5. Constitutive Equations
8.6. Three-dimensional Numerical Implementation
8.7. Calibration of Model Parameters
8.8. Comparison to Uniaxial Experiments
8.9. Three-dimensional Boundary Value Problems
8.10. Summary
8.11. Acknowledgements
8.12. References

Chapter 9. Hybrid Shape Memory Polymers-Shape Memory Alloys Composites
Pedro Cortes
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Shape Memory Composites
9.3. Modeling
9.4. Microvascular SMCs
9.5. Conclusions
9.6. Acknowledgments
9.7. References

Chapter 10. Multiway Bending Actuation of Shape-Memory Composite Belt
Hisaaki Tobushi, Ryosuke Matsui, Kohei Takeda and Shunichi Hayashi
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Fabrication of SMC Belt for Three-way Motion
10.3. Three-way Bending Movement of SMC Belt
10.4. Recovery Force of SMC Belt during Heating and Cooling
10.5. Development of Multifunctional SMC Actuator
10.6. Conclusions
10.7. References

Chapter 11. Fiber Reinforced Shape Memory Polymer Composite Deployable Hinge for Aerospace Applications
Liwu Liu, Haiyang Du, Yanju Liu and Jinsong Leng
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Post Buckling Behavior of SMPC
11.3. Design of SMPC Deployable Hinge
11.4. Manufacture of SMPC Deployable Hinges
11.5. Performance Test of SMPC Deployable Hinge
11.6. Summary
11.7. References

Chapter 12. Processing and Characterization of Novel Bismaleimide-Based Shape Memory Polymer Resin and Composites
G. P. Tandon, T. Gibson, R. Coomer, A.J.W. McClung and J. Baur
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Synthesis, Processing, Fabrication, Physical and Thermal Characterization
12.3. Thermo-mechanical and Shape Memory Characterization
12.4. Summary
12.5. Acknowledgements
12.6. References

Chapter 13. Nanoreinforced SMP Composites for Aerospace Applications
Haibao Lu, Yanju Liu and Jinsong Leng
13.1. SMPCs Reinforced by the Carbon-based Nanofiller
13.2. SMPCs Reinforced by the Nanosized Clay
13.3. SMPCs Reinforced by the Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane (POSS)
13.4. SMPCs Reinforced by the Hybrid Filler
13.5. SMPCs for Aerospace Applications
13.6. Summary
13.7. References

Chapter 14. Adaptive Materials and Structures for Morphing Aerostructures
Shiv Joshi, Brian Sanders and Robert S. Bortolin
14.1. Introduction to Morphing Aerodynamic Structures
14.2. Morphing Mechanisms and Deformable Skin Requirements
14.3. A Multifunctional Reinforcement Concept
14.4. A Design Case Study
14.5. Conclusions
14.6. Acknowledgements
14.7. References

Chapter 15. Novel Design Concepts for Micro Air Vehicles and Unimorph Composite Actuators Incorporating Transverse Curvature
Jason T. Cantrell and Peter G. Ifju
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Unimorph Composite Actuator Experimental Procedure
15.3. Unimorph Composite Actuator Results
15.4. Micro Air Vehicle Wing Experimental Investigation
15.5. Micro Air Vehicle Wing Results
15.6. Conclusions
15.7. References

Chapter 16. Shape Memory Polymer Triggered Compliant Mechanisms for Deployable Systems
James J. Joo, Richard V. Beblo and Gregory W. Reich
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Energy subsystem Design and Analysis
16.3. Wing Deployment Mechanism Subsystem Design and Analysis
16.4. System Design
16.5. Conclusions
16.6. References

Chapter 17. Shape Memory Metal Rubber for Aerospace Applications
William Harrison, Richard Claus and Jennifer Lalli
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Experimentation
17.3. Results
17.4. Conclusions
17.5. Acknowledgements
17.6. References

Chapter 18. Active Origami
Martin L. Dunn and H. Jerry Qi
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Origami: A Combination of Art and Mathematics
18.3. Shape Memory Polymers for Active Origami
18.4. Discussions and Future Work
18.5. References

Index

  1. :

    In this book specialists at the forefront of shape memory polymers (SMPs) have been brought together to discuss the progress, current status and remaining challenges constricting SMPs’ successful application in an industry. It can be perceived that the book consists of five sections. The first section, ie Chapters 1 to 5, deals with the introduction to shape memory effect (SME) in SMPs realised by the glass transition and phase evolution and gradually proceeds to the narration of characterisation of shape memory response.

    The second section, ie Chapters 6 to 8, covers the SMP modeling and simulation. Much effort has been given to review the constitutive models based on internal electronic structure changes and glass transition or viscoelasticity where 1D standard linear solid model is applied to capture the mechanism of SMEs in SMP. Another unique characteristic of SMP known as the multi-SME is captured by 1D multibranch model. The model description further extends to a review on finite deformation and thin-walled cylinder finite element simulations. Other modeling approach includes internal variable based phase transition models for thermally actuated SMPs. The internal variable approach illustrates the way to phenomenologically represent the molecular mechanism that is responsible for the SME.

    The third section, ie Chapters 9 to 11, covers the shape recovery characteristic of SMP composites produced by a combination of shape memory alloy (SMA) wire and SMP matrix, SMA tube and SMP matrix, and two types of SMA tapes exhibiting SME and superelasticity that are sandwiched by the SMP tapes. The actuation capability of SMP composites is evaluated through the deployable hinge designed for the aerospace applications. In optimising the capability, the key factors included bending of curvature, design angle and shape of end fixture, layer thickness of the hinges, deployment stiffness and the manufacture technology. The heating method is also highlighted as a key factor to the deployment process of the hinge.

    The fourth section, ie Chapters 12 to 13, investigates the incorporation of reinforcing fillers, with an aim to improve the mechanical properties and to diversify the applications of SMPs. Experimental investigations revealed that it would be possible to develop SMP resin and composite with a high Tg, good shape fixity and near complete recovery. Nanostructure tailoring of the SMP is presented at length – nanosized reinforcements considered are carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofiber, clay, polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane and hybrid filler. While carbon black-reinforced composites show limited shape recovery, carbon nanotube reinforced composites showed nearly full shape recovery. The SMP composites with graphene oxide (GO), with increasing percentage of GO showed improvements on toughness, tensile strength, elongation at break and scratch hardness. The fifth and final section, ie Chapters 14 to 18, effectively puts together the broad range of topics on SMPs and SMP composites used for the aerospace applications and the like. The topics extend from morphing aerostructures, unimorph composite actuators and thermal energy activated deployment of a packaged unmanned aerial vehicle to shape memory metal rubber morphing skins and printed active origami.

    In summary, owing much to the broad coverage of the topics, the emphasis is clearly on the book’s subtitle: ‘Novel Synthesis, Modeling, Characterisation and Design’. Backed by the numerous examples with figures, tables and references, the book is an excellent resource for shape memory practitioners with applications in mind and recommended as an essential read for both novices and experienced engineers who are endeavoring to pin down the shape recovery characteristics of SMPs and SMP composites under various programmable and stimulus conditions.
    Dr Kiyohide Wada CEng, MIMechE, College of Engineering, Swansea University

Shape-Memory Polymers for Aerospace Applications (Entire eBook)
$175.00 Save: $34.50
Chapter 1: Controlled Activation Schemes of SMPs for Aerospace Applications
$25.00
Chapter 2: Environmental Durability of Shape Memory Polymers and Composites
$25.00
Chapter 3: Compression Behavior of Adaptive Polymer Foams
$25.00
Chapter 4: Microvascular Activation of Shape Memory Polymers
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Chapter 5: Light Activated Shape Memory Polymers_ Characterization of Elastic Modulus Evolution
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Chapter 6: Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics and Electromagnetics of Azobenzene Liquid Crystal Polymer Networks
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Chapter 7: Viscoelasticity Based Models for Thermally Activated Systems
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Chapter 8: Internal Variable Based Phase-Transition Models for Thermally-Actuated Shape Memory Polymers
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Chapter 9: Hybrid Shape Memory Polymers-Shape Memory Alloys Composites
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Chapter 10: Multiway Bending Actuation of Shape-Memory Composite Belt
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Chapter 11: Fiber Reinforced Shape Memory Polymer Composite Deployable Hinge for Aerospace Applications
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Chapter 12: Processing and Characterization of Novel Bismaleimide-Based Shape Memory Polymer Resin and Composites
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Chapter 13: Nanoreinforced SMP Composites for Aerospace Applications
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Chapter 14: Adaptive Materials and Structures for Morphing Aerostructures
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Chapter 15: Novel Design Concepts for Micro Air Vehicles and Unimorph Composite Actuators Incorporating Transverse Curvature
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Chapter 16: Shape Memory Polymer Triggered Compliant Mechanisms for Deployable Systems
$25.00
Chapter 17: Shape Memory Metal Rubber for Aerospace Applications
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Chapter 18: Active Origami
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