Life Cycle Analysis of Nanoparticles

Risk, Assessment, and Sustainability

Edited by: Ashok Vaseashta, Ph.D., Director of Research, International Clean Water Institute, NUARI

978-1-60595-023-5, ©2015, 404 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Investigative tools for analyzing environmental nanoparticles with health impacts
  • Basic theories and models of life cycle analysis applied to nanomaterials
  • Connects LCA, detection technologies and sustainability

This book addresses the ways life cycle assessment (LCA) concepts can be applied to analyze the fate of nanoparticles in a variety of environmental and manufacturing settings. After introducing LCA theory and modeling concepts, the work discusses risks associated with carbon nanotubes, graphene, silver, fullerenes, iron oxides and other particles generated by manufacturing or medical diagnostics. Chapters in the text discuss biomolecules and the application of in vivo biosensors. Also covered are fate analysis, risk assessment, toxicology and nanopathology with a focus on human health and disease.

About the Contributors

Chapter 1. Sustainability By Design
Ashok Vaseashta
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Sustainability and Vision of Sustainable Future
1.3. Designing Sustainable Future
1.4. Future Societies—Footprint and Emerging Issues
1.5. Conclusions and Recommendations for Path Forward
1.6. References

Chapter 2. Nanomaterials Life Cycle Assessment: Framing the Opportunities and Challenges
Mary Ann Curran
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Basics of LCA Methodology
2.3. Nanotechnology
2.4. Assessing Nanomaterials using LCA
2.5. Important LCA Methodological Issues
2.6. Sustainability
2.7. References

Chapter 3. Life Cycle Modelling
Srdjan Glisovic
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Emerging Technologies Impact Assessment
3.3. Modeling of Exposure, Box Models, Mass Balance and Concentrations
3.4. Multimedia Fate and Transport Modeling
3.5. A Single Media Air Dispersion Numerical Model
3.6. Multi-compartment Models
3.7. Computer Models—Accuracy and Reliability
3.8. Shortcomings of Environmental Models
3.9. Fate and Transport of Widely used Nanoparticles
3.10. Risk and Safety Issues
3.11. Identifying Gaps in the Body of Knowledge and Priority Research Areas
3.12. References 91

Chapter 4. Risk Mitigation via Optimal Sensor Placement for LCA in Water
Urmila M. Diwekar
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Water Distribution Networks and Contaminant Risk Modeling
4.3. Need for Uncertainty Analysis
4.4. Probabilistic Risks and Uncertainty Analysis
4.5. Sensor Placement Problem and Solution
4.6. Cost and Risk Trade-offs
4.7. Summary and Path Forward
4.8. References

Chapter 5. LCA in the Broader Scope of Societal Values
Lise Laurin
5.1. Introduction
5.2. LCA and Societal Impacts
5.3. Methods for Assessing Societal Impacts
5.4. Ongoing Developments
5.5. Conclusions
5.6. References

Chapter 6. Nanopathology—Risk Assessment of Mysterious Cryptogenic Diseases
Antonietta M. Gatti, Stefano Montanari and Ashok Vaseashta
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Defining Nanopathology
6.3. Historical Perspectives
6.4. Research Perspectives
6.5. The Nanodiagnostic Pathways
6.6. Nanotechnology Perspectives
6.7. Evolution of a New Research Field
6.8. A New Diagnostic Tool
6.9. Nanoparticles in the Environment
6.10. The Ethical Aspects of New Applications
6.11. Nanoparticle Exposure Pathways—Direct and Indirect
6.12. A Novel Investigative Medical Approach to Mysterious Diseases
6.13. Nexus of Science Convergence Approach to Diagnose Cryptogenic Diseases
6.14. Genetic Malformations and Fetal Exposure to Nanopollution
6.15. Futuristic Medical Diagnostic Platform
6.16. Nanotechnology and the Life Cycle Assessment of Nanoproducts
6.17. Conclusions and Path Forward
6.18. References

Chapter 7. Nanomaterials Related Environmental and Toxicological Peculiarities
Oleksii Kharlamov, Ganna Kharlamova, Marina Bondarenko, Nadezhda Gubareni, Maria Frolova and Veniamin Fomenko
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Nanomaterials Classification
7.3. Chemical and Nanotoxicological Peculiarities of Nanomaterials
7.4. Conclusions, Discussion and Path Forward
7.5. References

Chapter 8. Electrochemical Sensors for Biomolecular Recognitions
Arzum Erdem
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Electrochemical Sensing of DNA Interactions
8.3. Sequences-specific Recognition by Nucleic Acid Hybridization
8.4. Aptamer Based Sensors for Environmental and Food Analysis
8.5. Conclusion and Future Pathways
8.6. Acknowledgments
8.7. References

Chapter 9. Enzyme-Based Biosensors for Trace Detection
E. Gyorgy and I. N. Mihailescu
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Biosensors Structure and Classification
9.3. Techniques of Enzyme Immobilization
9.4. Application to UREA Biosensors
9.5. Conclusion and Perspectives
9.6. Acknowledgments
9.7. References

Chapter 10. Surface Functionalization of Semiconductor Nanoparticles
Marie-Isabelle Baraton
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Functionalization of Semiconductor Nanosized Particles
10.3. Characterization of Functionalized Semiconductor Nanoparticles
10.4. FTIR Spectroscopy for the Characterization of Semiconductor Nanoparticles
10.5. Functionalization of Tin Oxide Nanoparticles
10.6. Conclusion and Future Outlook
10.7. Acknowledgments
10.8. References

Chapter 11. Nanotechnology and Sustainability—Current Status and Future Challenges
Teresa M. Mata, Antonio A. Martins, Carlos A. V. Costa and Subhas K. Sikdar
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Challenges Posed by Nanotechnology
11.3. Sustainability and Nanotechnology
11.4. Conclusions
11.5. References

Chapter 12. Membranes: Potential Solution for Sustainable Development
Alessandra Criscuoli
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Membrane Generalities
12.3. Applications of Membranes
12.4. New Metrics
12.5. Concluding Remarks
12.6. References

Chapter 13. Photo-Electrochemical Production of Hydrogen and In Situ Storage of Hydrogen for Energy Sustainability
Roel Van De Krol, Dana Perniu, Yongqi Liang, Hans Van ‘T Spijker and Joop Schoonman
13.1. Introduction
13.2. The PEC Cell
13.3. The PECCS Cell
13.4. Solid-state Proton Conductor
13.5. Conclusions
13.6. Acknowledgments
13.7. References

Chapter 14. Green Infrastructures Development in the Sustainability Framework
Fokion K.Vosniakos, Alexandros Mamoukaris, Mariana Golumbeanu,
Efthymios Karakolios, Konstantinos F. Vosniakos and Stelios Mimis
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Economic Activities and Progress Related to “Green” Development
14.3. Research and Technology Supporting Green Infrastructure—Case Study of Greece
14.4. Alternate Sources of Energy
14.5. Impact in the Environment and on Humans from Climatic Changes
14.6. How to Construct the “Green Development”
14.7. Economic Crisis and Its Negative Effect on the Environment
14.8. Conclusions
14.9. References

List of Acronyms

978-1-60595-023-5, ©2015, 404 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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