The Web Handling Handbook

David R. Roisum, Ph.D., BSME, MSEM, Finishing Technologies, Inc.
Timothy J. Walker, BSME, M.S. MOT, T.J. Walker and Associates, Inc.
Dilwyn P. Jones, Ph.D., MInstP, Consultant in Materials Science and Engineering

ISBN 978-1-60595-598-8, November 2020, 756 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Reviews and explains material properties, roller mechanics, drives, tension control, nip control, guides, spreaders, winders, and more as used in calendaring, coating, laminating, printing and other web processes
  • Addresses each topic from fundamentals through advanced concepts, including recent research findings and their practical application
  • Explains how web handling systems work and why webs behave the way they do with detailed illustrations and easy-to-understand calculations (in both SI and American units)
  • Provides the tools needed to troubleshoot and correct most web handling problems, including proven real-world best practices
  • Emphasizes more profitable web processing through reducing waste from defects, downtime, and customer complaint

The Web Handling Handbook is a comprehensive guide to all technical aspects of handling or processing thin flexible materials written for anyone working with webs and web processes.

This engineering handbook is the first of its kind to comprehensively describe and discuss the wide range of technical aspects related to handling webs, which include paper, plastic films, foils, nonwovens, rubber, tissue, textiles and more. The book illustrates applied engineering principles and provides easy-to-understand calculations that inform how web systems are designed, maintained and operated. The handbook is meant to help readers to troubleshoot and correct defects such as wrinkles, bagginess, curl, and misshapen wound rolls. Written by foremost experts in web handling, this volume explains how to achieve the goal of moving the web optimally through web-to-roll manufacturing, as well as roll-to-roll and roll-to-sheet converting operations.


From the Foreword

…For anyone who has to make tough decisions at 03:00, or has to implement a new process, or is charged with improving throughput and reducing waste, this is now the go-to resource. It manages to bring clarity for those who want a “just give me the answer” book, yet provides the depth for those who want to build their own understanding

–Steven Abbott, FRSC, Director, Steven Abbott TCNF Ltd, Visiting Professor, Univ. of Leeds

Foreword
Preface
Acknowledgments

Chapter 1: Overview

  • What is a Web?
  • What is Web Handling?
  • The Benefits of Great Web Handling
  • Conventions
  • Units
  • Web Line Basics
  • Key Web Handling Principles
  • Control of Conditions
  • Webs and Machines

Chapter 2: Materials

  • “It Depends on the Material”
  • Properties for Web Handling
  • Avoiding Web Damage
  • Dimension-Related Properties
  • Web Imperfections
  • Obtaining Web Properties
  • Thickness
  • Thickness Profile
  • Basis Weight
  • Density
  • Tensile Testing
  • Young’s Modulus, Tensile Stiffness
  • Poisson’s Ratio
  • Failure Stress
  • Flexural Modulus and Stiffness
  • Compressive Strength
  • Viscoelastic Behavior
  • Tear Resistance
  • Coefficient of Friction (COF)
  • Lab Tests for Friction
  • Adhesion
  • Surface Roughness
  • Surface Roughness Measurements in Films and Foils
  • Contact and Friction
  • Roughness of Paper
  • Air Permeance
  • Thermal Expansion
  • Moisture Effects
  • Orientation and Anisotropy
  • Paper
  • Plastic Films
  • Metal Foils and Sheets
  • Woven Fabrics
  • Nonwovens
  • Fiber Composites
  • Foams
  • Glass
  • Multilayer Webs
  • Typical Property Values
  • Concluding Remarks
  • Bibliography

Chapter 3: Rollers

  • The Building Blocks of Our Web Machines
  • Web Path Design
  • Roller Functions
  • Minimizing Roller Count
  • Optimizing Span Length
  • Web Contact Restrictions
  • Tolerant Web Machine Designs
  • Roller Design
  • Roller Width
  • Roller Diameter
  • Roller Diameter Profile
  • Bearing Position
  • Bearing Life
  • Bearing Drag
  • Roller Inertia
  • Roller Deflection
  • Roller Shell Materials
  • Roller Heads and Shafts
  • Roller Coatings and Covers
  • Additional Roller Design Considerations
  • Cylindricity and Other Measures of Quality
  • Roller Mounting, Support and Alignment
  • Problems Caused by Roller Misalignment
  • Roller Alignment Standards
  • Frame and Mount Design for Alignment
  • Roller Frames and Supports
  • Foundations
  • Roller Mounts
  • Dual End vs Cantilevered Roller Support
  • Roller Alignment Methods
  • Simple Alignment Checking Tools
  • Roller Alternatives
  • Concluding Comment
  • Bibliography

Chapter 4: Traction

  • Introduction to Traction
  • Traction in Web Handling
  • Traction Safety Factor
  • Available Traction
  • Web-To-Roller Coefficient of Friction
  • The Belt Equation
  • Lubrication of Wrapped Roller
  • At-Speed Traction Measurement
  • Air Entrainment
  • Air Lubrication and Traction Loss
  • Air Capacity of Roller Roughness and Grooving
  • Traction Transition from Friction to Full Lubrication
  • Web Centrifugal Force
  • Optimizing Traction
  • Minimum Wrap Angle
  • Traction of Nipped Rollers
  • Traction of Vacuum-Assisted Rollers
  • Traction Required
  • Loss of Traction and Slippage
  • Macro- and Micro-Slip
  • Scratches, Abrasion, and Roller Marks
  • Adhesion and Release Surfaces
  • Non-Roller Traction Systems
  • Bibliography

Chapter 5: Tension

  • Introduction to Tensioning
  • Designing a Tension Control Plan
  • Specifying Tensions and Tension Variations
  • Specifying Tension Zones and Drive Points
  • Developing a Control Plan for a Multi-Zone Web Line
  • Tensioning with Open-Loop Torque Control
  • Tensioning with Closed-Loop Control
  • Summary of Tensioning Options
  • Minimizing Undesirable Tension Variations from All Sources
  • Bibliography

Chapter 6: Drives

  • Introduction to Drives
  • The Purpose of a Drive
  • Review of Web Basics
  • Types of Motors
  • Speed, Torque, and Power
  • Motor Efficiencies
  • Types of Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD)
  • 4-Quadrant Operation
  • Mechanical Drives and Components
  • Speed Reducers
  • Couplings
  • Bearings
  • Universal Joints
  • Resonances
  • Sensors
  • Adjustable Frequency Drive Coordination and Communication
  • Working with ASDs—Tools
  • ASD Parameters
  • Block Diagrams
  • ASD Tuning
  • ASD Modes
  • Surface Speed Control
  • S-Ramp
  • Diameter
  • Tension Control
  • Open-Loop Control
  • Closed-Loop Control
  • Dancers
  • Torque Compensation due to Inertia
  • Friction and Windage
  • Load Sharing
  • Speed Droop
  • Web-Roller Slippage Detection
  • Eccentric Rolls
  • Sizing an ASD and Motor
  • Threading the Line
  • Roller Changes
  • ASDs for Specific Converting Sections
  • Safety Standards
  • Maintenance
  • Process Changes—Upgrading Older ASDs
  • Concluding Comments
  • Bibliography

Chapter 7: Nipped Rollers

  • Introduction to Nipped Rollers
  • Nipped Roller Functions
  • Nip Forces and Pressures
  • Controlling and Estimating Nip Force from Supply Pressure
  • Controlling and Estimating Force from Indentation or MD Footprint
  • Rubber-Covering Mechanics
  • Specifying Rubber Hardness
  • Rubber Hardness and Elastic Modulus
  • Nip Measurements and CD Profile
  • Causes of Nip Profile Variations
  • Nip Induced Tensioning and Shifting
  • The Ideal Nipping System
  • Safety
  • Summary Advice
  • Bibliography

Chapter 8: Guides and CD Path Control

  • Cross-Machine Position Needs
  • CD Position Error Overview
  • Large-Scale CD Errors
  • Small-Scale (But Potentially Critical) CD Errors
  • The Normal Entry Rule
  • The Span as a Tensioned Beam
  • CD Tension Variations and Slackness
  • CD Error Propagation
  • CD Shifting Mechanism—Misalignment
  • Shifting from CD Tension Gradient or Profile
  • CD Diameter Variations
  • Nipping Variations
  • Web Bagginess
  • Web Thickness Profile
  • Web Peeling Variations
  • Air Flow Variations
  • Spiral Patterns and CD Shifting: Real or Myth?
  • Summary of CD Shifting Effects
  • Summary of Considerations to Reduce CD Errors
  • Web Guiding (Edge/Center/Path Position Control)
  • Passive Guides
  • Active Guides—System Architecture and Options
  • Guide Response and Accuracy
  • Unwind and Winder Sidelay Guides
  • Steering Guides
  • Displacement Guide
  • Other Guides
  • Parallels Between Guiding and Spreading
  • Intentional Path Changes
  • Turn Bars
  • To Close with a Few Turn Bar Application Notes
  • Bibliography

Chapter 9: Wrinkles and Flatness

  • Introduction
  • How to Read and Describe: Troughs, Wrinkles and Creases
  • Inspecting Samples
  • Wrinkle Types and Subtypes
  • Quantifying Wrinkle Severity as a Count
  • Quantifying Wrinkle Severity as Excess Width
  • Wrinkle Permanence
  • Mechanics of Troughs and Wrinkles
  • Causes of MD Wrinkles and Troughs
  • Diagonal Buckling
  • Prediction of Diagonal Wrinkles Due to Misalignment
  • MD Buckling and CD Wrinkles
  • Wrinkles Caused by Web Properties
  • Wrinkle Summary Thoughts
  • Bibliography

Chapter 10: Spreaders

  • Why Spread?
  • Spreader Options
  • Spreader Mechanics
  • A Strategy for Wrinkles
  • Flattening
  • Compliant Cover Rollers
  • Concave Roller
  • Bowed Roller
  • A Simple Lane Model for After Slitter Spreaders
  • The Bent Pipe Options
  • Dual Spreaders
  • Expanding Cover Rollers
  • Edge Pull Spreaders
  • Tenter Frames
  • Spiral Grooving
  • The Textile Spreader Bar and Chevron Foil Spreader
  • Spreader Application Summary
  • Bibliography

Chapter 11: Winders

  • What Does a ‘Good’ Wound Roll Look Like?
  • Core and Near-Core Troubles
  • Winder Classes
  • Winder Arrangements
  • TNTs & Tightness
  • Range of Tightness Provided by the Various Classes of Winders
  • Roll Structure and Taper
  • Roll ‘Quality’ Measurements
  • Using Roll Hardness to Screen for Bagginess
  • Pressures and Other Stresses Inside a Wound Roll
  • Generation of Winding Stresses
  • Radial Modulus is a Key Winding Model Input
  • Air Entrainment
  • Winding Stress Models
  • Wound Roll Stress Applications
  • Some Winding Defects
  • Predicting Roll Diameter from Length and Other Measures
  • Bibliography

Chapter 12: More Web Handling and Processing

  • How to Use
  • Accumulators
  • Air Floatation
  • Air Float Ovens
  • Arched Ovens
  • Brakes, Pneumatic
  • Calendering
  • Cleaning
  • Coating
  • Corona Treatment
  • Curl—Overview
  • Curl—Laminator
  • Curl—Roll Set
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Film
  • (Web) Flutter
  • Folding
  • Friction (Nips, Dancers, Controls, etc.)
  • Gravity
  • Heated and Cooled Rollers
  • Liquids, Web Handling in Metals
  • Moisture and Relative Humidity
  • Oscillation
  • Paper
  • Printing
  • Registration
  • Roller Alternatives
  • Scratches
  • Skew
  • Skewable, Skewing or Squaring Rollers
  • Slack Web
  • Slitting
  • Speed
  • Spring-Mounted and ‘Self-Leveling’ Rollers
  • Static Charge
  • Static Reduction
  • Sticking to Rollers
  • Textiles
  • Thin Materials
  • Web Handling in a Vacuum
  • Vibration
  • (Brittle) Web Breaks
  • Width of Web and Wound Roll
  • Bibliography

Chapter 13: Appendices

  • Appendix A1—Apps (AbbottApps and other Internet Resources)
  • Appendix A2—Authors of Materials on Web Handling
  • Appendix B—Selected Resources
  • Appendix C—Conversion Factors
  • Appendix E—Other Web Handling Resources
  • Appendix F—Web Handling Timeline
  • Appendix G—Symbols and Abbreviations
  • Appendix M—Drive Motor Sizing for Center Winders
  • Appendix Q—Self-Test Questions
  • Appendix S—Best Practices for Taking A Web Sample
  • Appendix T—Test Methods
  • Appendix W—Web Handling Websites

Glossary
Index
Biographies of the Authors and Chapter Champions

  1. :

    It’s been said that when “trying to be all things to all people, you can become nothing to nobody.” So at first glance, the thoroughness of The Web Handing Handbook can seem overwhelming, but it is just this comprehensive coverage of “all things web-handling” that makes it such a valuable, one-stop resource.

    Having known Roisum, Walker and Jones and their respective work for anywhere from five to 25 years, I certainly wasn’t at all surprised by their extreme attention to detail combined with an easy-to-read, and sometimes conversational presentation of the technical information. Everyone from the novice to the seasoned manufacturing professional will find both basic explanations and applicable, hands-on solutions in the handbook’s hundreds of concise topics, whether you are running materials as traditional as newsprint paper or as sophisticated as flexible glass for printed electronics. And, while many in the R2R-processing field will admit that much can be attributed to web handling as an art, the authors’ work in clearly grounded in science from start to finish.

    The Web Handling Handbook needs a home in every R2R-processing facility.

    Mark A. Spaulding
    Editor-in-Chief
    Converting Quarterly

  2. :

    This is a very comprehensive handbook covering web handling processes and is tremendously helpful for those working in the converting industry, as well as researchers in academia working in web related processes. Those in industry, including process engineers, technicians, operators, maintenance professionals and equipment designers and its builders and those in academia, including instructors, students, and experimental technicians, will reap great benefits from this handbook. The book provides an understanding of the basics as well as detailed applications in web processes. The content is presented all the way from a materials basics chapter to coverage of process units associated with web process lines.

    This handbook incorporates both the engineering science of the web handling process and the practical knowledge accumulated by years working in manufacturing operations, thus providing a uniquely valuable handbook. Excellent pictorial figures support the text and illustrate complicated web handling issues.

    Chapter 12 More Web Handling Processing provides another unique feature of this handbook by discussing all web handling related issues, solutions to which are oftentimes critical to achieve quality manufacturing.

    Some high technology industries must deal with extremely thin and wide films and unique pattern coated/printed webs and therefore have challenging issues in web handling. This handbook provides a good source of web handling fundamentals to understand and address these issues and provides solution strategies to achieve consistent manufacturing.

    I would strongly recommend that those working in web processes have this handbook on hand.

    Shuzo Fuchigami
    Consultant, Precision Coating Technology
    Minnesota, USA

  3. :

    In The Web Handling Handbook, authors Roisum, Walker, and Jones have created a comprehensive collection of their knowledge and experience gained from decades of consulting in manufacturing industries that convert thin, flexible materials into a wide array of everyday products comprised of metal foil, paper, plastic film, and textiles. Klassen also contributed extensively on Drives, and a dozen people from machine manufacturers and companies who apply web handling in their production facilities were enrolled as reviewers.

    Given the diverse set of materials and products that employ web handling in their manufacture, it would seem impossible to supply a text that could be broadly useful but also have sufficient detail for specific applications, but these authors have succeeded by focusing on relevant engineering principles and fundamental science critical to web handling. These foundational concepts may be applied to any material/machine combination, and they present them in an accessible way, using plain language to explain their observations of common phenomena like wrinkles, web position errors and winding defects, and build on the basics with detailed recommendations for machine designers and process troubleshooters to avoid or solve issues that impact product quality and process reliability. Some equations are included, but the authors generally rely more on written description, graphics, and photos for explanation, with extensive references to commercial software, websites and academic research for those who wish to learn at even a deeper level.

    In twelve chapters plus an extended set of appendices, the art and science of web handling is deconstructed, explained, and demonstrated with practical examples from the part and assembly level (materials, rollers, drives, nips, spreaders, and winders) to the key concepts needed for the control of webs: tensioning, lateral positioning, traction, and wrinkle/flatness. The differences in how various material classes and how their resulting properties affect the way webs behave are consistently covered in each chapter, and useful references to other chapters are provided, allowing the reader to enter the text at any point and navigate to their topics of interest. Several examples provide step-by-step methods, such as for solving wrinkle problems measuring nip parameters, and sizing drive motors.

    Process engineers, machine designers and operators, especially those new to industry, will receive help from this essential reference by learning why webs do what they do in their machine, and how the machine’s state of maintenance, part design choices and configuration, and setpoints all play a role in web behavior, unlocking secrets to continuously improve operations by avoiding common errors or correcting them in an efficient way.

    Steve Lange

    Steve Lange is a retired Research Fellow from the Procter & Gamble Company, former chair of the Web Handling Research Center’s Industry Advisory Board, and is now Managing Member of ProcessDev, LLC, a process development consulting company. During his 35-year career at P&G in Research & Development, he developed web converting processes for baby diapers and was consulted on processes for a wide range of products including batteries, bath and facial tissue, flexible packaging, feminine hygiene products, dental floss, pharmaceutical products, facial and baby wipes, and laundry products. He was an internal expert and trainer of web handling, modeling/simulation applications and data analytics.

The Web Handling Handbook (Entire eBook)
$199.00 Save: $40.00
Chapter 1: Overview
$25.00
Chapter 2: Materials
$25.00
Chapter 3: Rollers
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Chapter 4: Traction
$25.00
Chapter 5: Tension
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Chapter 6: Drives
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Chapter 7: Nipped Rollers
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Chapter 8: Guides and CD Path Control
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Chapter 9: Wrinkles and Flatness
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Chapter 10: Spreaders
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Chapter 11: Winders
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Chapter 12: More Web Handling and Processing
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Chapter 13: Appendices
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ISBN 978-1-60595-598-8, November 2020, 756 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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