Mechanics of Rollers

David R. Roisum, Ph.D.

ISBN: 0-89852-313-3, ©1996 TAPPI, 2010 Reprint, 317 pages, 7×10, soft cover

David R. Roisum, Ph.D.

ISBN: 0-89852-313-3, ©1996 TAPPI, 2010 Reprint,
317 pages, 7×10, soft cover

  • Complete technical guide to rollers in winding and web devices
  • Processing and transport rollers for films, foils, nonwovens, textiles, papers
  • Design, geometry, operation, alignment, maintenance

This book is a comprehensive technical guide to rollers, the key component of winding/web devices and processes. With hundreds of illustrations and mathematical formulas, the book explains all facets of processing and transport rollers, roller operations and adjustment, including specialty rollers.

1. Introduction

  • The Foundation of Web Processes
  • Roller Applications
  • Dead and Live Shaft Arrangements
  • Heads and Journals
  • Bearings
  • Roller Geometry—Axial
  • Roller Geometry—Diametral
  • Shell Materials
  • Coverings and Coatings
  • To Drive or Not to Drive
  • Roller Drives
  • Roller Issues
  • Articles and Books

2. Tension and Tension Control

  • Why Web Tension Is Important
  • Choosing a Process Tension
  • Load Cell Tension
  • Load Cell Sizing Example
  • Other Load Cell Considerations
  • Dancer Controlled Tension
  • Dancer Design
  • Dancer Dynamics
  • Draw Control
  • Tension Variations in a Draw Zone
  • Catenary (Loop) Control
  • Tension from Motor Readings
  • Current Control
  • Torque Control
  • Multiple Drive Sections
  • Down Web Tension Vairations
  • Cross Web Tension Profiles
  • Bibliography

3. Deflection

  • Why Deflection Must Be Minimized
  • How Much Deflection is Allowable
  • Deflection Definition and Forces
  • Deflection Calculation Made Simple
  • Deflection Calculation Example
  • A Closer Deflection Calculation
  • Cantilevered Machines
  • Cantilever Calculation Example
  • Roller Deflection Summary
  • Bibliography

4. Traction, Torque and Power

  • Why Traction Is Important
  • Which Mode Is In Effect
  • The Normal Entry Law
  • Static Coefficient of Friction
  • Friction Complications
  • Air Entrainment
  • Air Entrainment Model and Application
  • Air Entrainment Example Calculation
  • Grooving
  • Texturizing
  • Web and Roller Porosity
  • Measuring Traction
  • Traction Factors
  • The Band-Brake Equation
  • Band Brake Application
  • Band-Brake and Macroslippage
  • Nipped Pull Rollers
  • S or Bridle Wrapped Drive Rollers
  • Vacuum, Pressure and Centrifugal Effects
  • Roller Drag
  • Measuring Drag
  • Inertial Tension
  • Wrap Angle
  • Drive Tension
  • To Drive or Not to Drive
  • Tension from DC Motor Readings
  • Summary
  • Bibliography

5. Nipped Rollers

  • Nipped Rollers for Web Transport
  • Nipped Rollers for Web Processing
  • Nipped Roller Issues
  • Web Stresses in a Nip
  • Hertzian Contact
  • Determining Peak ZD Nip Stress
  • Interior Contact Stresses
  • Complex Nip Models
  • Nip Loading Mechanisms
  • Nip Load System Friction
  • Load Versus Gap Control
  • Roller Deflection in a Nip
  • Crowning
  • Load-Crown Match
  • Deflection and Bearing Position
  • Deflection Compensating Techniques
  • Roller Geometrical Errors
  • Nip Impressions
  • Static Nip Impressions
  • Dynamic Nip Impressions
  • Bibliography

6 Shells

  • Introduction
  • Axial Shell Geometries
  • Radial Shell Geometries
  • Shell Materials
  • Heads
  • Shell Stresses
  • Composites
  • Case for Composites
  • Bibliography

7. Journals and Shafts

  • Journals and Shafts Must Be Short
  • Bending
  • Bending Stress Example Problem
  • Torsion
  • Combined Stresses
  • Fatigue
  • Fits
  • Bibliography

8. Bearings

  • Introduction
  • Bearing Types
  • Sizes and Options
  • Lubrication
  • Load and Life
  • Bearing Drag
  • Maintenance of Bearings
  • Bibliography

9. Coatings and Covers

  • Why Coat
  • Why Cover
  • Anodizing
  • Plating
  • Tungsten Carbide
  • Thermal Coating Processes
  • Cover Compliance and Nip Pressure
  • Covers and Speed Control
  • Cover Modulus
  • Cover Hardness
  • Hysteresis and Heat
  • Cover Failures
  • Cover Materials
  • Cover Properties
  • Bibliography

10. Surface Topology

  • The Importance of the Surface
  • Roughness and Waviness
  • Grooving
  • Web Flattening
  • Hardness and Durability
  • Large Scale Topology
  • Bibliography

11. Vibration and Balance

  • Adverse Effects of Machine Vibration
  • Vibration Sources
  • Vibration Terminology
  • A Simple Roller on Simple Mounts
  • Measuring and Identifying Vibration
  • Resonances and Mode Shapes
  • How Much is Too Much
  • Unbalance
  • Simple Static Balancing
  • Balancing Weights
  • Couple Unbalance
  • Balancers
  • Dynamic Balancing
  • Balance Grade
  • Other Balance Specs
  • Nipped Rollers
  • Wound Rolls
  • Wound Roll Instability
  • Foundations
  • Framework
  • Vibration Summary
  • Selected Bibliography
  • Bibliography

12. Alignment

  • Why Align
  • Inplane Misalignment and Bending
  • Inplane Example Problem
  • High Inplane Misalignments
  • Out-of-Plane Twisting
  • Diagonal Shear Wrinkles
  • Manual Alignment Checks
  • Alignment and the Machine Builder
  • Alignment and Plant Maintenance
  • Alignment Service
  • Alignment Process
  • Bibliography

13. Mechanical Drives

  • Mechanical Motivation
  • Belts
  • Gears
  • Couplings
  • Shafts
  • Tendency Drives
  • Variable Speed Transmissions
  • Pneumatic Brakes and Clutches
  • Hydraulic Brakes and Drives
  • Electromechanical Brakes and Clutches
  • Unwind Clutches
  • Band Brakes on Rolls and Rollers

14. Electric Drives

  • Electric Motivation
  • AC Inverter Drive
  • AC Vector Drive
  • DC Drives
  • AC to DC Power Conversion
  • Brushless DC
  • Web Drive Process Health Evaluation

15. Temperature Control

  • Temperature Dependence
  • How to Measure Temperature
  • Where to Measure Temperature
  • Chill Rolls
  • Electrically Heated Rollers
  • Heat Pipes
  • Steam Heated Rollers
  • Circulating Liquid Heated Rollers
  • Heat Transfer
  • Warmup and Shutdown
  • Bibliography

16. Cores, Chucks and Shafts

  • Applications
  • Deflection and Bending Stresses
  • Deflection and Vibration
  • Fiber Cores
  • Metal Cores
  • Mandrels and Spools
  • Core Chucks
  • Core Shafts
  • Sizing Specifications
  • Bibliography

17. Spreaders

  • Introduction
  • Spreading Principles
  • Concave Spreader
  • Bowed Spreader Roller
  • Bent Pipe and D-Bar Spreaders
  • Dual Bowed Roller Spreader
  • Pos-Z Spreader
  • Expander Rollers
  • Edge Pull Web Stretchers
  • Compliant Cover Rollers
  • Grooving
  • Spreading Is Temporary
  • Bibliography

18. Specialty Rollers and Elements

  • Additional Roller Resources
  • Air Bars
  • Vacuum Bars
  • Concave Rollers
  • Crowned Rollers
  • Edge Guides
  • Footage (Length) Counters
  • Spring Mounted Rollers
  • Skewing or Squaring Rollers
  • Calendering
  • Laminator Curl
  • Embossing
  • Slitting
  • Static Electricity
  • Bibliography

19. Wound Rolls

  • Rolls Versus Rollers
  • Roll Cylindricity and Defects
  • Roll Runout, Vibration and Handling
  • Roll Hardness
  • Interlayer Slippage
  • Air Entrainment
  • Unwind Drive Sizing
  • Drive Sizing Example—English Units
  • Drive Sizing Example—Metric Units
  • Bibliography

20. Maintenance

  • Introduction
  • Alignment
  • Balance and Vibration
  • Bearings
  • Cylindricity
  • Drive Controls
  • Drive Mechanicals
  • Grinding
  • Heated/Chilled Rollers
  • Nips
  • Purchasing
  • Rigging
  • Storage
  • Transport
  • Surface Defects
  • Bibliography

Appendices
Unit Conversion Tables
Selected Bibliography
Calculations and Formulae

Glossary

Index

ISBN: 0-89852-313-3, ©1996 TAPPI, 2010 Reprint, 317 pages, 7×10, soft cover

David R. Roisum, Ph.D.

ISBN: 0-89852-313-3, ©1996 TAPPI, 2010 Reprint,
317 pages, 7×10, soft cover

$135.00
ISBN: 0-89852-313-3 Categories: ,