Sludge Engineering

The Treatment and Disposal of Wastewater Sludges

F. Dilek Sanin, Professor of Environmental Engineering, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey
William W. Clarkson, Associate Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Oklahoma State University-Tulsa
P. Aarne Vesilind, Professor of Engineering, Emeritus, Bucknell University

ISBN: 978-1-932078-87-9, ©2011, 403 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

Student price available

  • Comprehensive explanation of sludge theory and engineering design
  • Covers US and European disposal regulations and practices
  • Includes design examples and solved problems

Intended for advanced students and practitioners of wastewater engineering, this comprehensive text clearly explains the theory and quantitative rationale for treating wastewater and industrial sludges, with public safety and efficiency in mind. The authors bring instructional and engineering backgrounds to the subject of sludge, presenting the necessary calculations as well as sample design alternatives for each process in sludge handling. The authors are fully attuned to the controversies surrounding sludge disposal and carefully lay out US and European regulations that govern current technologies. The book offers important information on emerging practices for safe and legal sludge disposal. Numerous case studies and sample problems are included for the benefit of instructors and students.


Book Review

Even though the management of wastewater sludges and biosolids may represent half of the overall cost of wastewater treatment, many texts on wastewater treatment neglect these important issues. Vesilind’s 1979 text was a landmark in choosing to solely address these topics. Sanin, Clarkson, and Vesilind have finally given this work a well-deserved update. Especially useful are new sections covering land application practices and sludge/biosolids regulations. Sludge issues are truly international in scope and this is also reflected in the new book, covering both policies and practices with a global perspective. This is the best available text for any course on sludge and biosolids management.

–Steven K. Dentel, Ph.D., P.E., DEE, Professor, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
University of Delaware

Preface

CHAPTER 1: SLUDGE SOURCES, QUANTITIES, AND MANAGEMENT
1.1 Sludge Sources
1.2 Sludge Quantities
1.3 Rationale of Sludge Management in a Wastewater Treatment Plant
1.4 Sludge Disposal: Laws and Regulations
1.5 Sludge Disposal: Sustainability
1.6 Conclusions
1.7 References
1.8 Problems

CHAPTER 2: SLUDGE CHARACTERISTICS
2.1 Physical Characteristics of Sludge
2.2 Chemical Characteristics of Sludge
2.3 Biological Characteristics of Sludge
2.4 Conclusions
2.5 References
2.6 Problems

CHAPTER 3: SLUDGE STABILIZATION
3.1 Stability Parameters
3.2 Biological Stabilization of Sludge
3.3 Chemical Stabilization
3.4 Physical Stabilization
3.5 Conclusions
3.6 References
3.7 Problems

CHAPTER 4: SLUDGE PUMPING AND CONVEYING
4.1 Liquid Sludge Pumping
4.2 Dewatered Sludge Pumping and Conveying
4.3 Dried Sludge Conveying
4.4 In-line Measurement of Sludge Density
4.5 References
4.6 Problems

CHAPTER 5: SLUDGE THICKENING
5.1 Gravitational Thickening
5.2 Flotation Thickening
5.3 Gravity Belt Thickening
5.4 Other Methods of Thickening
5.5 Conclusions
5.6 References
5.7 Problems

CHAPTER 6: SLUDGE DEWATERING
6.1 Sand Beds
6.2 Lagoons
6.3 Wedge Wire Beds
6.4 Freezing Beds
6.5 Vacuum Filters
6.6 Filter Presses
6.7 Belt Filters
6.8 Centrifuges
6.9 Limits of Dewatering
6.10 Conclusions
6.11 References
6.12 Problems

CHAPTER 7: SLUDGE CONDITIONING
7.1 Chemical Conditioning
7.2 Heat Conditioning
7.3 Elutriation
7.4 Freeze-Thaw Conditioning
7.5 Bulking Materials
7.6 Conclusions
7.7 References
7.8 Problems

CHAPTER 8: SLUDGE DRYING AND COMBUSTION
8.1 Sludge Drying
8.2 Sludge Combustion
8.3 Alternative Thermal Technologies
8.4 Conclusions
8.5 References
8.6 Problems

CHAPTER 9: CHEMICAL SLUDGES
9.1 Chemical Treatment of Wastewater
9.2 Alum Sludge from Water Treatment Plants
9.3 Iron Sludges from Wastewater Treatment Plants
9.4 Lime and Water Softening Sludges
9.5 Metal Hydroxides
9.5 Ultimate Disposal of Industrial Sludges
9.6 Conclusions
9.7 References
9.8 Problems

CHAPTER 10: LAND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGE AS BIOSOLIDS
10.1 Benefits of Sludge Disposal on Land
10.2 Land Application of Biosolids
10.3 Calculating Land Area Requirements for Biosolids
10.4 Application Methods for Liquid and Dewatered Biosolids
10.5 Conclusions
10.6 References
10.7 Problems

CHAPTER 11: OTHER OPTIONS FOR SLUDGE DISPOSAL AND BENEFICIAL USE
11.1 Pyrolysis and Gasification
11.2 Oil from Sludge
11.3 Building Materials from Sludge
11.4 Deep Well Injection
11.5 Disposal into the Marine Environment
11.6 Disposal of Sludge into Landfills
11.7 Conclusions
11.8 References
11.9 Problems

CHAPTER 12: REGULATIONS GOVERNING SLUDGE DISPOSAL
12.1 Regulations Governing Sludge Disposal on Land in the United States
12.2 Review of Regulations and Potential Health Concerns with Sludge Land Application
12.3 Future Trends in Land Application Regulations
12.4 Regulations in Europe
12.5 Conclusions
12.6 References

Appendix
Index

Sludge Engineering (Entire eBook)
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Chapter 1: SLUDGE SOURCES, QUANTITIES, AND MANAGEMENT
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Chapter 2: SLUDGE CHARACTERISTICS
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Chapter 3: SLUDGE STABILIZATION
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Chapter 4: SLUDGE PUMPING AND CONVEYING
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Chapter 5: SLUDGE THICKENING
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Chapter 6: SLUDGE DEWATERING
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Chapter 7: SLUDGE CONDITIONING
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Chapter 8: SLUDGE DRYING AND COMBUSTION
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Chapter 9: CHEMICAL SLUDGES
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Chapter 10: LAND DISPOSAL OF SLUDGE AS BIOSOLIDS
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Chapter 11: OTHER OPTIONS FOR SLUDGE DISPOSAL AND BENEFICIAL USE
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Chapter 12: REGULATIONS GOVERNING SLUDGE DISPOSAL
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ISBN: 978-1-932078-87-9, ©2011, 403 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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