Machines, Mechanics and Measurements

J.K. Good, Ph.D., P.E., Professor and Noble Foundation Chair, School of Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Oklahoma State University

David R. Roisum, Ph.D., Finishing Technologies, Inc.

ISBN: 978-1-932078-69-5, ©2008, 428 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Watch Author Video
  • Complete guide to all winder mechanical arrangements and control strategies
  • Practical and theoretical know-how for predicting and avoiding roll defects
  • Quantitative techniques for measuring and improving roll quality
  • Accompanying CD-ROM provides computer models for many winding situations

This new book, by two of the world’s foremost experts, is the definitive guide to how winding machines work and how wound rolls are formed. It covers a wide array of machines in use across all web industries, including paper, film, foil, nonwovens, textiles, and more. It sets the standard for understanding and applying quality control in the field. Using hundreds of proven calculations, the book enables readers to understand and make the adjustments necessary to prevent roll defects and improve product quality. Dozens of examples and hands-on applications illustrate key techniques. Most of the book, especially the last section on measurement, is written in everyday language accessible to all responsible for machine operation and roll quality-—from engineers to shop floor managers.


List of Figures
List of Tables
Foreword by James N. Dobbs, 3M Company


1. Zen and the Art of Winding

  • The TNT’s of Winding
  • Winder Classes
  • Limits on Tension, Nip and Torque Differential
  • The Effect of Class on Range of Wound Roll Tightness
  • What is Tightness?
  • How Does Winding Being a One-Knob Process Affect Winding Strategy?
  • What Class is Best and How Many Knobs Do I Need?
  • What About Taper or Roll Structure?
  • How Do You Set Taper?
  • A Few Words About Optimization—What is the Best Tension?
  • References

2. Some Winding Defects

  • DFM Applied to Winding
  • Getting Started
  • What is a Defect?
  • Blocking
  • Core—Crushed
  • Core—Loose
  • Corrugations or Ropes
  • Curl
  • Gauge Bands or Ridges
  • Hardness Variations Across a Roll
  • Nip Induced Defects
  • Offsets and Rough Roll Edges
  • Out-of-Round Roll
  • Starring and Related Defects
  • Telescoping
  • A Note on Oscillation
  • Summary
  • References

3. Winder Arrangements

  • Selecting a Winder
  • Salvage Winders
  • Turret Winders
  • Reels
  • Duplex Winders
  • Two Drum Winders
  • Grooving, Traction Coated and Rubber Covered Drums
  • Gap Winders
  • Bigger is Better for Drums, Spools, Cores and Rollers
  • Supporting Large Rolls on Drums
  • Summary
  • References

4. Roll Geometry and Properties

  • Roll Diameter
  • Roll Length
  • Resolving Roll Length Discrepancies
  • Roll Width
  • Wound Roll Offsets and Rough Edges
  • Telescoping and Dishing
  • Roll Weight and Density
  • Some Useful Roll Conversion Formulas
  • References


5. Simple Material Properties

  • Basis Weight
  • Caliper
  • Caliper Profile—A Very Important Note
  • Density or Bulk
  • Other Web Material Properties of Winding Interest
  • Other Roll Properties of Winding Interest
  • The Fiber Core—The Foundation of Most Wound Rolls
  • References

6. Introduction to Wound Roll Modeling

  • Stresses in a Wound Roll
  • Anisotropy and Principal Axes
  • MD or Tangential Modulus
  • ZD or Radial Modulus
  • In-Plane Poisson Ratio
  • Poisson Ratios for Winding Models
  • Basic Equations of Winding Models
  • Winding Equation
  • Core Modulus Ec—The Inner Boundary Condition
  • Winding Tightness—The Outer Boundary Condition
  • References

7. Simple 1-D Models

  • Early Models 1950-1985
  • Hakiel’s Models—1986
  • Early Complex Models
  • Early Experimental Verification
  • The Hakiel Formulation
  • Spongy and Fully Compressed Behavior
  • Constant Tension versus Constant Torque
  • Large Deformations
  • Plane Strain versus Plane Stress Winding Models
  • References

8. 2-D Models and Gauge Variation

  • Measuring Gauge Profile
  • Early Models of the Effects of Gauge Variation
  • True 2-D Models of the Effects of Gauge Variation
  • Summary of the Effects of Gauge Variation
  • References

9. The Effect of Nip on Wound Roll Stresses

  • Classes of Winders
  • What is WOT?
  • Early Experimental Evidence of WOT
  • Early Models for WOT
  • Comparative Study of Different Models for WOT
  • WOT on Two Drum Winders
  • Summary of Findings
  • References

10. The Effects of Air Entrainment

  • Air Entrainment Between Webs and Rollers
  • When Is Air Important Between Permeable Webs and Rollers/Wound Rolls?
  • Some Practical Observations on Entrained Air
  • Air Entrainment on Centerwinders
  • An Introduction to Nip Rollers on Winders
  • Modeling Air Exclusion by a Nip Roller
  • Exhaust of Air Entrained From the Edges of a Wound Roll
  • The Effect of Air Entrainment on Wound Roll Stresses
  • Effect of Air Exhaust on Wound Roll Stresses
  • Summary
  • References

11. The Effects of Moisture and Temperature

  • Time Constants for Movement of Moisture/Temperature in a Wound Roll
  • Moisture/Temperature Profiles of a Wound Roll
  • Thermoelastic Behavior in Wound Rolls
  • Hygroscopic Behavior in Wound Rolls
  • References

12. Viscoelastic Behavior

  • Creep and Stress Relaxation
  • Viscoelastic Behavior
  • References

13. Defects Predicted by Winding Models

  • Pressure Related Defects
  • Bursts, Baggy Lanes, Ridges and Hardstreaks
  • Modeling of Simple Slippage Related Defects
  • Telescoping
  • Crepe Wrinkles
  • Starring
  • Tin-Canning
  • Core Collapse
  • Loose Cores and Core Stiffness
  • References

14. Dynamic Behavior at High Speeds

  • Centrifugal Effects
  • Vibration
  • References


15. Wound Roll Sampling and Inspection

  • Why Measure?
  • Measurement Methods
  • Methodology
  • Sampling
  • Interchangeability of Measurements
  • References

16. Measures of Roll Hardness

  • Billy Club and its Variants
  • RhoMeter and RhoHammer
  • Backtender’s Friend
  • Schmidt (Concrete) Hammer
  • Parotester
  • References

17. Measurements of Interlayer Pressure

  • Pull Tab
  • Smith Needle
  • Core Torque
  • Axial Press Test
  • Pressure Transducers
  • Caliper In-Roll
  • Acoustic Time-of-Flight
  • References

18. Measurements Based on Strain

  • Cameron Gap
  • J-Line
  • Radially Drilled Holes
  • Slit Roll Face
  • Strain Gages
  • References

19. Density Based Measures

  • Air In Roll
  • Roll Density
  • Density Analyzer—History
  • Density Analyzer—Construction
  • Density Analyzer—Theory of Operation
  • Analysis of the Density Analyzer
  • References

20. Other Wound Roll Measures

  • Profile
  • Bubbleometer
  • X-Ray Tomography
  • References

21. Wound Roll Measurement Considerations

  • Is my Web Good?—Sampling Across the Width of the Roll
  • Is my Roll or my Winder Good?—Sampling Through the Roll
  • Is It the Winder’s Fault?
  • Is my Measurement Good?—Testing the Test

Appendix A—Units and Conversions
Appendix B—Selected Bibliography
Appendix C—Selected Calculations
Appendix D—Glossary


About the Authors

Winding (Entire eBook)
$175.00 Save: $54.95
Chapter 1: Zen and the Art of Winding
Chapter 2: Some Winding Defects
Chapter 3: Winder Arrangements
Chapter 4: Roll Geometry and Properties
Chapter 5: Simple Material Properties
Chapter 6: Introduction to Wound Roll Mo
Chapter 7: Simple 1D Winding Models
Chapter 8: 2D Winding Models and Gauge Variation
Chapter 9: The Effect of Nip on Wound Roll Stresses
Chapter 10: The Effects of Air Entrainment
Chapter 11: The Effects of Moisture and Temperature
Chapter 12: Viscoelastic Behavior
Chapter 13: Defects Predicted by Winding Models
Chapter 14: Dynamic Behavior at High Speeds
Chapter 15: Wound Roll Measurement: Introduction
Chapter 16: Hardness Measurements
Chapter 17: Measurements Based on Interlayer Pressure
Chapter 18: Strain-Based Measurements
Chapter 19: Density-Based Measures
Chapter 20: Other Wound Roll Measures
Chapter 21: Wound Roll Measurement Considerations
Chapter 22: WINDaROLL: An Introductory 1D Wound Roll Model Code

ISBN: 978-1-932078-69-5, ©2008, 428 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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