Essentials of Polymer Science and Engineering

Paul C. Painter, Professor, Penn State University
Michael M. Coleman, Professor Emeritus, Penn State University

ISBN: 978-1-932078-75-6, ©2009, 538 pages, 7×10, Hardcover or Online Book

Student price available

  • Comprehensive and accessible introduction to polymers
  • For undergraduates and graduates in chemistry, engineering and materials science
  • Equipped with reviews, problem sets, and other instructor materials
  • Useful reference also for professionals
  • An important addendum for your school’s and department’s library collection
  • Full color figures, tables and graphs throughout the text

This book is at once an introduction to polymers and an imaginative invitation to the field of polymer science and engineering as a whole, including plastics and plastics processing. Created by two of the best-known scientists in America, the text explains and helps students as well as professionals appreciate all major topics in polymer chemistry and engineering: polymerization synthesis and kinetics, applications of probability theory, structure and morphology, thermal and solution properties, mechanical properties, biological properties and plastics processing methods.

Essentials of Polymer Science and Engineering, designed to supersede many standard texts (including the authors’), is unique in a number of ways. Special attention has been paid to explaining fundamentals and providing high-level visuals. In addition, the text is replete with engaging profiles of polymer chemists and their discoveries. The book explains the science of polymer engineering, and at the same time, tells the story of the field from its beginnings to the present, indicating when and how polymer discoveries have played a role in history and society.

The book comes well equipped with study questions and problems and is suitable for a one- or two-semester course for chemistry students at the undergraduate and graduate levels.

Preface

Acknowledgements

1. INTRODUCTION

  • Preliminary Rant
  • What Is a Polymer?
  • How Big are Polymers?
  • Classification
  • The Early History of Polymers
  • Schonbein and Nitrated Cellulose
  • Parkes, Hyatt and the Elephants
  • Regenerated Cellulose
  • The Growth of Polymers and the Birth of Polymer Science
  • Polymer Materials: Boon or Bane?
  • Are Plastics Just Cheap and Nasty Materials?
  • Traditional versus Synthetic Materials
  • Do Traditional Materials Get a Break?
  • Plastics, Energy and the Environment
  • Polymers: No Need to Apologize
  • Recommended Reading
  • Some Useful Websites
  • Study Questions

2. MICROSTRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT

  • Polymer Microstructure
  • Linear and Branched Polymers
  • Branching Types
  • Network Formation
  • Cross-Linking
  • Polymer Isomerism
  • Copolymers
  • Molecular Weight
  • Molecular Weight Distributions
  • Definition of Number and Weight Average Molecular Weight
  • Which Average Molecular Weight?
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

3. POLYMER SYNTHESIS

  • Introduction
  • Major Classifications
  • Condensation Reactions
  • Why Do Molecules React?
  • Basic Features of Step-Growth Polymerization
  • Basic Features of Addition Polymerization
  • Step-Growth Polymerizations
  • Polyesters
  • Polyamides (Nylons)
  • Polyurethanes
  • Transesterification
  • Network Formation
  • Chain or Addition Polymers
  • Free Radical Polymerization
  • Anionic Polymerization
  • Cationic Polymerization
  • Coordination Polymerization
  • Metallocene Catalysts
  • Living Free Radical Polymerization
  • Monomer Types for the Different Polymerization Methods
  • Polymerization Processes
  • Suspension Polymerization
  • Emulsion Polymerization
  • Multiphase Processes
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

4. POLYMERIZATION KINETICS

  • Introduction
  • Chemical Kinetics
  • Kinetics—A Superficial and Thoroughly Incomplete Review
  • The Reactivity of Chain Molecules
  • The Kinetics of Step-Growth Polymerization
  • The Extent of Reaction (p)
  • The Kinetics of Uncatalyzed Polyesterifications
  • The Kinetics of Catalyzed Polyesterifications
  • The Kinetics of Chain Polymerizations
  • Initiation
  • Propagation
  • Termination
  • Summary of Kinetic Equations
  • The Steady-State Assumption
  • The Rate of Polymerization
  • The Trommsdorff Effect
  • Conversion
  • Average Chain Length
  • Chain Transfer
  • Anionic Polymerization
  • Cationic Polymerization
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

5. POLYMERIZATION: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS

  • Introduction
  • Probability of an Event
  • Statistics of Linear Polycondensation
  • Non-Stoichiometric Equivalence
  • Chain Stoppers
  • The Probability that a Group has Reacted
  • The Probability of Finding an X-mer
  • The Number and Weight Fraction of X-mers
  • The Number and Weight Distribution Functions
  • The Schulz-Flory Distribution
  • Polydispersity
  • Statistics of Chain Polymerizations
  • Free Radical Polymerization
  • Ionic Polymerizations
  • Living Polymerizations
  • Branching and Gelation
  • Theory of Gelation
  • The a Parameter
  • Critical Value of alpha
  • Gelation: Theory Versus Experiment
  • Random Branching Without Network Formation
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

6. COPOLYMERIZATION

  • Introduction
  • Kinetics of Chain-Growth Copolymerization
  • Free Radical Copolymerization
  • Terminal Model
  • Deriving the Copolymer Equation
  • The Steady-State Assumption
  • Reactivity Ratios
  • Composition Drift
  • Determination of Reactivity Ratios
  • The Mayo-Lewis Plot
  • The Fineman-Ross Plot
  • The Kelen-Tudos Plot
  • Monomer Reactivity and the Q-e Scheme
  • Copolymer Sequence Distributions
  • General Statistical Relationships
  • Conditional Probability
  • Conditional Probabilities of Different Orders
  • Some Useful Parameters
  • The Number Fraction Sequence of Units
  • The Number Average Length of A (and B) Runs
  • The Run Fraction or Number
  • A Measure of the Departure from Randomness
  • Terminal Model Revisited
  • Composition as a Function of Conversion
  • Penultimate Model
  • Testing the Models
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

7. SPECTROSCOPY AND THE CHARACTERIZATION OF CHAIN MICROSTRUCTURE

  • Introduction
  • Simple Harmonic Motion
  • Molecular Transitions
  • Molecular Spectroscopy of Polymers
  • Instrumentation
  • Infrared Spectroscopy
  • NMR Spectroscopy
  • 1H NMR
  • 13C NMR
  • Characterization of Microstructure
  • Polymer Identification
  • Branching
  • Sequence Isomerism
  • Structural Isomerism
  • Tacticity in Vinyl Polymers
  • Propagation Mechanisms
  • Copolymer Analysis
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

8. STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY

  • Introduction
  • States of Matter
  • Bonding and Intermolecular Interactions
  • Conformations
  • The Number of Chain Conformations
  • The Chain End-to-End Distance
  • Random Walks and Random Flights
  • Real Chains
  • The Kuhn Segment Length
  • Self-Avoiding Walks
  • Order and Morphology
  • Ordered Chain Conformations
  • Chain Arrangements and Morphology
  • Polymer Single Crystals
  • Chain Folding
  • Melt Crystallization
  • Size and Properties
  • Crystallization and Properties
  • Fibers
  • Block Copolymers
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

9. NATURAL POLYMERS

  • Introduction
  • Polypeptides and Proteins
  • Proteins as Copolymers
  • The Amide Bond
  • Amino Acids
  • Some Final Observations on Polypeptide Microstructure
  • The Conformation of Polypeptides and Proteins
  • The Ramachandran Plot
  • The Structure of Silk
  • Spider Silk
  • The Structure of Collagen
  • The Structure of Keratin
  • Final Words on Protein Structure
  • Polysaccharides
  • The Structure of Cellulose
  • Energy Storage Polysaccharides: Amylose, Amylopectin and Glycogen
  • Chitin
  • Poly(Nucleic Acids): DNA and RNA
  • Introduction
  • Structure of DNA and RNA
  • RNA—More to Come?
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

10. CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING AND THE GLASS TRANSITION

  • Introduction
  • A Superficial and Thoroughly Incomplete Review of Thermodynamics
  • The Laws of Thermodynamics
  • What is Thermodynamics?
  • The Ideal Gas Laws
  • Heat, Work and Energy
  • Entropy and the Second Law
  • Enter the Molecules
  • The Kinetic Theory of Gases
  • The Maxwell Distribution of Velocities
  • Entropy Revisited
  • Boltzmann’s Equation
  • Free Energy
  • Thermal Transitions in Polymers
  • Crystallization
  • The Rate of Crystallization
  • The Avrami Equation
  • Thermodynamic Considerations
  • Critical Nucleus Size
  • Equilibrium Melting Temperature
  • Primary Nucleation
  • Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Nucleation
  • Secondary Nucleation
  • Lauritzen-Hoffman Theory
  • Fold Period and Crystal Growth Rate
  • Crystallization Regimes
  • Kinetics of Primary Crystallization
  • Secondary Crystallization
  • The Crystalline Melting Temperature
  • Melting Temperature of Polymer Crystals
  • Factors that Influence the Melting Temperature
  • Effect of Chemical Structure
  • Effect of Intermolecular Interactions
  • Entropy and Chain Flexibility
  • Effect of Solvents
  • Effect of “Defects” and Molecular Weight
  • The Glass Transition Temperature
  • Glassy Solids and the Glass Transition
  • Free Volume
  • Free Volume, Viscosity and the Glass Transition
  • Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects of the Tg
  • Effect of Molecular Weight
  • Effect of Chemical Structure
  • Effect of Cross-Linking and Crystallization
  • Effect of Diluents
  • Random Copolymers and Blends
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

11. POLYMER SOLUTIONS AND BLENDS

  • Introduction
  • Entropy of Mixing
  • Molecules of Different Sizes
  • Enthalpy of Mixing
  • Flory’s chi Parameter
  • The Flory-Huggins Equation
  • Cohesive Energy Density
  • Solubility Parameters
  • Group Contributions
  • Phase Behavior
  • The Critical Value of chi
  • Some Limitations of the Flory-Huggins Theory
  • Dilute Solutions
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

12. MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND BRANCHING

  • Introduction
  • Virial Equations
  • Osmotic Pressure
  • Light Scattering
  • Electromagnetic Fields
  • Origin of Light Scattering
  • Liquids and Solutions
  • Light Scattering from Polymers
  • Light Scattering from Random Coil Polymers
  • Zimm Plots
  • Viscosity
  • Poiseuille’s Law
  • The Viscosity of Polymer Solutions
  • Intrinsic Viscosity and Molecular Weight
  • Viscosity Average Molecular Weight
  • Frictional Properties of Polymers in Solution
  • Size Exclusion Chromatography
  • Hydrodynamic Volume
  • The Universal Calibration Curve
  • Long Chain Branching
  • Long-Chain Branching in Polychloroprene
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

13. MECHANICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

  • Introduction
  • Mechanical Properties—Definitions
  • Background
  • An Aside on Units
  • Poisson’s Ratio
  • Bulk Modulus
  • Shear Modulus
  • Shear Forces in a Material under Tension
  • Elastic Properties of Materials
  • Hooke’s Law
  • Stress/Strain Characteristics of Polymers
  • Stiffness
  • Tensile Strength
  • Brittle Versus Ductile Materials
  • Summary: Strength and Toughness
  • Stress/Strain Characteristics of Polymers
  • Yielding in Polymers
  • Rubber Elasticity
  • Thermodynamics Revisited
  • Networks
  • The Mooney-Rivlin Equation
  • Polymer Melt Rheology
  • Viscosity
  • Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluids
  • Entanglements and the Dynamics of Polymer Chains
  • Reptation
  • Melt Flow at High Shear Rates
  • Viscoelasticity
  • Creep
  • Stress Relaxation
  • Dynamic Mechanical Analysis
  • Time-Temperature Equivalence
  • Viscoelastic Behavior: Amorphous Polymers
  • Relaxation in Amorphous Polymers
  • Viscoelastic Behavior: Semi-Crystalline Polymers
  • Mechanical and Theoretical Models
  • Viscoelastic Behavior: Simple Models
  • The Maxwell Model
  • The Voigt Model
  • The Four-Parameter Model
  • Distributions of Relaxation and Retardation Times
  • Time-Temperature Superposition Principle
  • The WLF Equation
  • Relaxation Processes in the Glassy State
  • Relaxation Processes in Semi-Crystalline Polymers
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

14. PROCESSING

  • Introduction
  • Extrusion
  • Single Screw Extruders: Hardware
  • Single Screw Extruders: Functionality
  • Single Screw Extruders: Applications
  • Twin Screw Extruders: Hardware
  • Twin Screw Extruders: Functions
  • Twin Screw Extruders: Applications
  • Injection Molding
  • Injection Molding: Features
  • Injection Molding: Applications
  • Injection Molding Variations
  • Hot Runners
  • Insert Molding
  • Gas-Assisted Injection Molding
  • Shear Controlled Orientation Injection Molding
  • Co-Injection Molding
  • Reaction Injection Molding
  • Compression Molding
  • Transfer Molding
  • Blow Molding
  • Injection Blow Molding
  • Stretch Blow Molding
  • Thermoforming
  • Rotational Molding
  • Recommended Reading
  • Study Questions

Index

Essentials of Polymer Science and Engineering (Entire eBook)
$115.00 Save: $79.50
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION
$25.00
Chapter 2: MICROSTRUCTURE AND MOLECULAR WEIGHT
$25.00
Chapter 3: POLYMER SYNTHESIS
$25.00
Chapter 4: POLYMERIZATION KINETICS
$25.00
Chapter 5: POLYMERIZATION: PROBABILITY AND STATISTICS
$25.00
Chapter 6: COPOLYMERIZATION
$25.00
Chapter 7: SPECTROSCOPY AND THE CHARACTERIZATION OF CHAIN MICROSTRUCTURE
$25.00
Chapter 8: STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY
$25.00
Chapter 9: NATURAL POLYMERS
$25.00
Chapter 10: CRYSTALLIZATION, MELTING AND THE GLASS TRANSITION
$25.00
Chapter 11: POLYMER SOLUTIONS AND BLENDS
$25.00
Chapter 12: MOLECULAR WEIGHT AND BRANCHING
$25.00
Chapter 13: MECHANICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES
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Chapter 14: PROCESSING
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ISBN: 978-1-932078-75-6, ©2009, 538 pages, 7×10, Hardcover or Online Book

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