Chemistry, Materials, and Properties of Surface Coatings

Traditional and Evolving Technologies

Güngör Gündüz, Ph.D., Middle East Technical University, Turkey

978-1-60595-066-2, ©2016, 751 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Scientific reference covers all surface coatings, paint types, components and formulations
  • Solvent-, water-based, polymeric, metallic, anti-corrosion, powder and advanced active coatings
  • Chemical equations, molecular configurations and polymer chains linked to key structure/property relations
  • Technical details on specialized coatings for marine, automotive and aerospace

 

This professional reference is a unified account of the chemistry and materials science of virtually all major resins, paints, polymeric and inorganic coatings. It offers uniform analyses of the chemical formulations and molecular structures of widely used solvent- and water-based paints and coatings, including discussions of binders, pigments and fillers. In the context of a scientific analysis of structure-property relations the book addresses adhesion, shelf-life, durability, volatility, hardness, mechanical, optical and other engineered qualities. Emerging active coatings such as conductive, self-cleaning, self-healing paints/coatings, plus eco-friendly powder coatings, are included.

Preface

Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. History of Surface Coating
1.2. Current Situation in Coating Technology
1.3. Future Forecast
1.4. References

Chapter 2. Polymers
2.1. Polymers, Resins, and Oligomers
2.2. The Configuration of Chains
2.3. Step Growth Polymerization or Polycondensation Reactions
2.4. Radical Polymerization
2.5. Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP)
2.6. Ionic Polymerization
2.7. Radical Copolymerization
2.8. Polymerization Techniques
2.9. Glass Transition Temperature
2.10. References

Chapter 3. Natural and Modified Resins
3.1. Natural Resins
3.2. Bituminous and Hydrocarbon Resins
3.3. Rosin
3.4. Modifications of Natural Resins
3.5. References

Chapter 4. Oils
4.1. Oils and Fatty Acids
4.2. Determination of Physical Properties of Oils
4.3. Drying Oils
4.4. The Processing of Oils
4.5. Oil Based Varnishes and Coatings
4.6. References

Chapter 5. Alkyds
5.1. The Chemistry of Alkyd Resin
5.2. Classification and Uses of Alkyds
5.3. Selection of Oil
5.4. Polyols
5.5. Polybasic Acids
5.6. The Manufacturing of Alkyds
5.7. Alkyd Compositions
5.8. Styrenated and Other Vinylated Alkyds
5.9. The Manufacturing of Alkyd Paints
5.10. Compositions of Alkyd Paints
5.11. Nitrocellulose Lacquer
5.12. Alkyds with Reduced Solvent
5.13. Hyperbranched Alkyds
5.14. References

Chapter 6. Phenol Formaldehyde Resins
6.1. The Chemistry of Phenol Formaldehyde Reactions
6.2. The Production of Resin
6.3. The Production of Resole
6.4. The Production of Novolac
6.5. Applications of Resins in Surface Coating
6.6. The Manufacturing and Application of Varnishes
6.7. Varnish Used in the Electrical Industry
6.8. References

Chapter 7. Amino Resins
7.1. Urea-Formaldehyde Reactions
7.2. Condensation Reactions
7.3. Urea Formaldehyde Resins
7.4. Melamine Formaldehyde Resins
7.5. Alkyd Amino Enamels
7.6. Amino Resin Lacquer
7.7. Other Amino Resins
7.8. References

Chapter 8. Epoxy Resins
8.1. Synthesis of Epoxy Resins
8.2. Curing Epoxy Resins
8.3. Epoxy Polymers
8.4. Epoxy Esters
8.5. Epoxy Acrylic Polymers
8.6. Compositions of Epoxy Paints
8.7. Waterborne Epoxies
8.8. References

Chapter 9. Silicone Resins
9.1. Silicone Monomers
9.2. Polymerization of Silanols
9.3. Structural Properties
9.4. Silicone Paints
9.5. Silicone Copolymers
9.6. Silicone Additives
9.7. References

Chapter 10. Polyurethanes
10.1. Isocyanate Reactions
10.2. Major Isocyanates Used in Surface Coating
10.3. Safety
10.4. Polyols
10.5. Catalysts
10.6. Chain Extenders
10.7. Effects on Properties
10.8. Polyurethane Coatings
10.9. Waterborne Polyurethanes
10.10. Hybrid Coatings
10.11. Hyperbranched Polyurethanes
10.12. Fluorine-Containing Polyurethanes
10.13. References

Chapter 11. Acrylic and Vinyl Resins
11.1. Monomers
11.2. Glass Transition Temperature
11.3. Physical and Mechanical Properties
11.4. Thermoset Acrylic Polymers
11.5. The Polymerization of Acrylic Monomers
11.6. Additives of Latex Paint
11.7. Acrylic Paints
11.8. Waterborne Acrylics
11.9. References

Chapter 12. Solvents
12.1. Solubility
12.2. The Parameters which Affect Viscosity
12.3. Solubility Parameter
12.4. Solubility Map
12.5. Evaporation Rate
12.6. Safety
12.7. The Characterization of Solvents
12.8. Types of Solvents
12.9. References

Chapter 13. Pigments
13.1. Pigments and Their Properties
13.2. Pigment Suspension
13.3. Some Selected White Pigments
13.4. Some Selected Colored Pigments
13.5. Mixed Oxide Pigments
13.6. Extenders
13.7. Organic Pigments
13.8. Pigment-Binder Relations
13.9. Surface Modification of Pigments
13.10. References

Chapter 14. Anticorrosive Coatings
14.1. Anticorrosive Pigments
14.2. References

Chapter 15. Special Pigments
15.1. Effect Pigments
15.2. Conductive Pigments
15.3. Luminescent Pigments
15.4. Hollow Polymer Pigments
15.5. References

Chapter 16. Grinding
16.1. Stokes’ Law
16.2. The Grinding Process
16.3. The Hydrophilic-Lipophilic-Balance Number
16.4. Types of Dispersants
16.5. Stability of Suspended Particles
16.6. The Effect of Adhesion Pattern of Surfactants on Cohesive Forces
16.7. Grinding Devices
16.8. The Daniel Flow Point
16.9. The Measurement of Extent of Grinding
16.10. The Effects of Grinding
16.11. References

Chapter 17. Powder Coating
17.1. Resins Used in Powder Coating
17.2. Additives
17.3. Powder Production and Application
17.4. The Effect of Process Parameters
17.5. References

Chapter 18. UV and Other Radiation Curing Systems
18.1. The Basic Principles of Curing
18.2. Materials Used in Radiation Curing
18.3. Water Based Coatings
18.4. Additives
18.5. Coatings and Properties
18.6. UV Powder Coatings
18.7. Miscellaneous Applications
18.8. References

Chapter 19. Special Purpose Paints
19.1. Automotive Paints
19.2. Marine Coatings
19.3. Aerospace and Aircraft Coatings
19.4. Self-cleaning Coatings
19.5. Self-healing Coatings
19.6. References

Chapter 20. Properties of Paint
20.1. Paint Application
20.2. Formation of Paint Film
20.3. Mechanical Properties
20.4. Physical Properties
20.5. Flame Retardance
20.6. Aging
20.7. UV Sensitivity
20.8. Biological Life
20.9. References

Chapter 21. Optical Properties
21.1. Gloss
21.2. Hiding Power
21.3. Color
21.4. References

Chapter 22. Paint Defects
22.1. Wet Paint
22.2. Coating Film
22.3. References

Index

  1. :

    Translated from Polish from the September 2016 issue of Journal “Ochrona przed Korozja“ (Corrosion Protection).

    The book includes traditional and developing technologies of production materials coating; unites all issues in the field of chemistry, physics and material engineering related coatings; presents all achievements in the field of coatings on the basis of literature from the years 2002-2012. The author, a researcher at the Middle East Technical University in Turkey, discussed in the technological problems in the design, formulation, receive, use and properties of solvent-based paints, water-borne and powder, taking account of paints for special purposes, such as paints for the shipbuilding industry, car or airplane and with special properties: self-cleaning samonaprawiających. Also analyzed exactly dependency properties coating materials – adhesion, hardness, durability, mechanical and optical properties the chemical composition and structure molecular products. Extensive knowledge and experience of the author, supported by innovative solutions, scientific, technological and production, make the book is a valuable source of information in the field of modern coating materials. The book consists of 22 chapters divided into subsections, including the most recent polymers, resins, solvents, pigments and fillers used today for the production of paints, varnishes and adhesives. After each chapter there is a list of the literature. Chapters 2-11 and 17-18 relate to traditional and new polymers resins products used in coatings. In most chapters Special attention was paid to the fast-growing hybrid layouts and hyperbranched. Posted numerous chemical formulas. They give an idea of the shape of particles or polymeric chains to be able to draw conclusions on the properties of the product end. Chapter 12 discusses issues relating to the solvents and in chapters 13-15 – for the pigments, further, important components paint shaping their final properties. Section 14 includes anticorrosive pigments, including organic coatings and inhibitors sol-gel, as well as interaction with the pigment surface of the substrate and a briefly test methods for corrosion-resistant coatings corrosive factors and the assessment methods of corrosion products. Significantly author devoted more attention to color pigments and fillers, which discussed in Chapter 13. Chapter 16 applies to milling operations, the types of mills and dispersants and auxiliaries used in the dispersing the pigments – of surfactants and dispersants. Violently developing environmentally friendly paints and powder curing UV devoted to chapters 17 and 18. In the chapter on paint powder noteworthy interesting photomicrographs illustrating the successive steps of running out on the surface of the powder for 2 min. at 100 ° C and the effect of temperature on crosslinking within one minute of paint based on the same polymer. Chapter 20 covers issues relating to the physical and mechanical the film properties including viscosity, thixotropy, foaming, pourability, drying time, temperature effect on film formation and the progress of the test methods of coating formation (atomic force microscope AFM, the measurement of contact angle and surface energy wave spectroscopy Distributed), to change the viscosity, coating thickness, adhesion, stress deformation, hardness, scratch resistance, abrasion, bending and impact. This section also provides information on retardant paints, including swelling. Last 22 Chapter relates to defects in paints and coatings. The author discusses in it, and illustrated, paint defects in the liquid state: bleed, Benard cells (a hexagonal pattern due to the currents flowing through the shell convection due to solvent evaporation), delamination and leaving pigments, orange peel and crocodiles, wrinkling, blistering, cratering, bleaching, haze, chalking and others.
    The book is addressed to those involved in organic coatings universities, research institutes and industry. Everybody interested will find the base of theoretical and practical knowledge
    in the field of paints and coatings for understanding the interactions place in articles coatings and their effect on the properties materials and facilitate the formulation of recipes, new products or modernize old ones. Below are the titles and subjects of main chapters.

    Chapter 1. Introduction (history coating materials – one the oldest technology, which dates back to the Stone Age, the current situation in coating technology, the outlook for the future);
    Chapter 2. The polymers (polymers, resins, oligomers, chain configuration, reactions of polymerization and polycondensation polymerization and copolymerization radical polymerization, ionic, glass transition temperature); Chapter 3. natural and modified resins (resins, bituminous and hydrocarbon rosin, the method of modifying natural resins); Chapter 4. oils (oils and fatty acids, the determination of the physical properties of oils, drying oils, processing oils, varnishes and oil-based paint); Chapter 5. Alkyd resins (alkyd resin chemistry, classification and application, selection of oils, polyols, polybasic acids, preparation alkyd resins, styrene resins and vinyl production of alkyd paints, nitrocellulose lacquers, products with reduced solvent content and hyper-branched); Chapter 6. Phenol-formaldehyde (chemical reactions, preparation resols and novolaks, used in paints and lacquers, varnishes used in the electrical industry); Chapter 7. Amino resins (urea-formaldehyde, melamine- formaldehyde, alkyd-amino); Chapter 8. Epoxy resins (for a synthesis, cross-linking, polymers, epoksyestry, polymers, epoxy, acrylic, water epoxy resins, the paint); Chapter 9. The silicone resins (monomers, polymerization of silanol properties, paint, copolymers, silicone additives); Chapter 10. Polyurethane resins (reaction of the isocyanates, polyols, catalysts, Influence of the chemical properties of the polyurethanes water hybrid, and a fluorine-containing hiberrozgałęzione); Chapter 11. Acrylic resins and vinyl (monomers transition temperature vitreous, physical and mechanical properties, thermosetting polymers, polymerization, auxiliaries for latex paints, acrylic paints, including water); Chapter 12. Solvents (solubility, viscosity, evaporation rate, types and characteristics, safety); Chapter 13. Pigments (types and properties, suspension of pigments, selected white pigments and colored, mixed oxide pigments, fillers, pigments Organic binder-pigment interaction, surface modification pigments); Chapter 14. Anti-corrosion coatings (anticorrosive pigments); Chapter 15. Special Pigments (effect, conductive, luminescent, polymer); Chapter 16. Grinding (Stokes law, the grinding process, the balance of hydrophilic lipophilic types of dispersants, dispersion stability grinding apparatus); Chapter 17. Powder coatings (resins, additives, receiving and application, the impact of process parameters); Chapter 18. UV-cured coatings and other radiation-curing (primary crosslinking base materials used for radiation curing. Water paint, chemicals, paints and coatings properties. UV curing of the coating, a variety of applications); Chapter 19. Paints for special purposes (car, for shipbuilding, for the aircraft industry and space, self-cleaning and self-healing a); Chapter 20. Properties of paint (application, film formation properties Physical and mechanical delaying smoking, aging, UV resistance andmicroorganisms); Chapter 21. The optical properties (gloss, opacity, color) Chapter 22. Cons coatings.

    Translated from Polish from the September 2016 issue of Journal “Ochrona przed Korozja“ (Corrosion Protection).

    Professor Margaret Zubielewicz
    Editor-in-Chief
    Journal Ochrona przed Korozja

Chemistry, Materials, and Properties of Surface Coatings (Entire eBook)
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Chapter 1: Introduction
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Chapter 2: Polymers
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Chapter 3: Natural and Modified Resins
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Chapter 4: Oils
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Chapter 5: Alkyds
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Chapter 6: Phenol Formaldehyde Resins
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Chapter 7: Amino Resins
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Chapter 8: Epoxy Resins
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Chapter 9: Silicone Resins
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Chapter 10: Polyurethanes
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Chapter 11: Acrylic and Vinyl Resins
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Chapter 12: Solvents
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Chapter 13: Pigments
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Chapter 14: Anticorrosive Coatings
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Chapter 15: Special Pigments
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Chapter 16: Grinding
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Chapter 17: Powder Coating
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Chapter 18: UV and Other Radiation Curing Systems
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Chapter 19: Special Purpose Paints
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Chapter 20: Properties of Paint
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Chapter 21: Optical Properties
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Chapter 22: Paint Defects
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