Advances in Science & Engineering of Rice

Edited by: Zhongli Pan, Ph.D., Western Regional Research Center, USDA, University of California, Davis, CA, and Ragab Khir, Ph.D., University of California, Davis, CA, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt

978-1-60595-191-1, June 2018, 690 pages, 6×9, HC book

  • Provides a systematic overview of the growth, uses, and technical improvement of all elements of rice
  • Covers each stage of production from pre-harvest to storage
  • Describes how genetic engineering and other new technologies enhance the qualities of rice as a crop, as well as the nutritional properties of rice as a food
  • Presents engineering and handling techniques for reducing environmentally harmful chemical residues and costs, while maintaining high levels of food quality and safety
  • Dedicated chapters cover aging of rice, rice fortification, and rice safety

In presenting recent research in rice science and engineering, this book provides a systematic overview of rice from farming to consumption. It covers each stage of rice production, from pre-harvest to storage, processing, and product applications. It includes the latest knowledge and efforts of rice researchers to improve the methods of harvesting, handling, drying, storage, and milling.

The book also reveals advances that have led to functionalizing rice components and making rice production more sustainable. In addition, the book explains methods for improving nutritional quality of rice-based diets through fortification. Utilization of by-products, such as rice bran and hulls, is also addressed.


From the Preface

Rice is one of the main staple foods in most parts of the world, and its consumption keeps increasing as a result of population growth, urbanization, and changes in population diets. Sustainable, efficient, and environmentally friendly methods and practices for rice farming, handling, and processing are needed to meet the increasing rice demand and the challenges of limited resources, such as land, water, energy, and labor. The advancements and improvements in genetic engineering, production, processing technology, and utilization have brought rice to a new frontier in addressing the needs of nutrition, affordability, and sustainability of stable food in our society.

 

Preface

List of Contributors

Chapter 1. Rice Overview: Production, Processing, and Sustainable Innovations

  • Introduction
  • Rice Production
  • Rice Properties and Nutritional Qualities
  • Rice Cultivation and Crop Management
  • Postharvest Losses
  • Rice By-products
  • Environmental Impacts and Life Cycle Analysis of Rice Production
  • Rice Production and Climate Change
  • Innovations in Sustainability of Rice Production
  • Innovations in Sustainability of Rice Processing
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 2. Genetic Engineering of Rice: Functional Properties of Cultivar, Grains and Quality Attributes

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Rice Crop Production Systems
  • Mineral Nutrition of Rice
  • Effect of Nutrient Deficiencies on Grain Quality
  • Breeding for High Yield and Wide Adaptability Yield and Yield Components of Rice
  • Fertilizer Intensive Cropping Systems
  • Influence of Abiotic and Biotic Stress on Grain Quality
  • Breeding for Grain Quality
  • Grain Appearance
  • Eating and Cooking Quality
  • Genome-wide Association Studies Focusing Grain Quality
  • Grain Quality Genomics
  • Genome Editing for Grain Quality
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 3. Engineering and Management of Rice Harvesting

  • The Need to Mechanize Rice Harvesting
  • Factors Affecting Harvesting
  • Harvesting Systems in Asia and Drivers for Mechanization
  • Combine Harvesting of Rice
  • Energy Efficiency
  • The Advent of the “Small Rice Combine” in Asia
  • Phases of Combine Introduction
  • Development Trends
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 4. Rice Drying

  • Introduction
  • Fundamental Concepts
  • Drying Methods
  • Commercial Rice Dryers
  • Theory of Drying
  • Mathematical Modeling of Drying
  • References

Chapter 5. Rice Aeration: Fundamental and Principles

  • Introduction
  • Concept of Aeration
  • Factors That Can Affect Effectiveness of Aeration
  • Aeration Design
  • Fan
  • Design Consideration for Other Aeration System Parts
  • Resistance to Airflow in Grains
  • Determination of Aeration Duration
  • Aeration Cost
  • Effect of Storage Conditions on Functional Properties of Rice
  • References

Chapter 6. Rice Safety

  • Introduction
  • Rice Safety Concerns of Microbial Origin
  • Rice Safety Concerns of Metals and Micronutrients Origin
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 7. Engineering Properties of Paddy/Rice

  • Introduction
  • Physical Properties
  • Frictional and Aerodynamic Properties
  • Dielectric Properties
  • Thermal Properties
  • Mechanical Properties
  • Quality
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

Chapter 8. Physical, Chemical and Functional Properties of Rice Components and Products

  • Introduction
  • Physical Property of Rice
  • Chemical Properties of Rice Grain
  • Functional Properties of Rice
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 9. Rice Milling

  • Introduction
  • Concept of Milling
  • Method of Milling
  • Factors Affecting Rice Milling Out-turn Ratio
  • Effect of Milling on Quality of Milled Rice
  • Concluding Remarks
  • References

Chapter 10. Aging of Rice

  • Introduction
  • Materials
  • Changes in Fine Structure of Waxy Rice Starch During Rice Aging
  • Changes in Pasting Properties of Waxy Rice Starch During Rice Aging
  • Changes in Pasting Properties of Waxy Rice Flour After Aging
  • Changes in Fine Structure of High Amylose Rice Starch During Rice Aging
  • Changes in Pasting Properties of High-Amylose Rice Starch and Flour After Aging
  • Mechanisms of Rice Ageing
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 11. Parboiling of Rice

  • Introduction
  • Parboiling Processes
  • Unit Operations in Parboiling
  • Parboiling Changes Grain Quality
  • References

Chapter 12. Rice Fortification

  • Introduction
  • Feasibility of Rice Fortification
  • Effective Factors for Fortification Process
  • Fortification Technologies
  • Rice Fortification at Scale
  • Future Trends in Fortification to Sustain Food Systems
  • Conclusions
  • References

Chapter 13. Development of a Micro Wet Stone Milling System for Rice Milk Production

  • Introduction
  • Research Background
  • Research Objectives
  • Research Progress
  • Pulverization in Two and Three Pass Milling to Produce Raw Rice Milk
  • Particle Observation by Optical Microscope
  • Determination of the Grinding Energy Required by the Micro-wet Milling System
  • Content and Outcome of the Technology
  • Future Research
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

Chapter 14. Rice Bran Processing and Utilization

  • Introduction
  • Quality of Rice Bran
  • Rice Bran Stabilization
  • Utilization of Rice Bran
  • Value Added Products from Rice Bran
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 15. Non-food Applications of Multiple Components in Rice

  • Introduction
  • Search of Alternative
  • Uses of Rice By-products
  • Rice Husk
  • By-products of Straw and Husk
  • High End Uses of RH & RHA
  • Metal Matrix Composites
  • Bio-ceramics
  • Rice Husk and Modified Husk
  • Bioconversion of Straw, Husk and Bran
  • Other Uses
  • Conclusion
  • References

Chapter 16. Rice Straw and Hulls

  • Introduction
  • Physical and Chemical Properties
  • Utilization and Applications
  • Life Cycle Assessment of Rice Straw and Husk Utilization for Energy Production
  • Market with Potential in the Future
  • Closing Remarks
  • References

Index

Zhongli Pan, Ph.D. is a Research Engineer in the Healthy Processed Foods Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service (ARS), U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Adjunct Professor in the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis. Dr. Pan received his B.S. and first M.S. degree in Agricultural Engineering from Northeast Agricultural University, China, his second M.S. degree in Food Engineering from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, and his Ph.D. degree in Food Engineering from the University of California, Davis.

He has outstanding work experience in academia, research institutions and industry. He served as Director of World Food Center – China, UC Davis, and Manager of Far East Tech Service, Archer Daniels Midland Co. He has led many international cooperation activities and research projects through his academic and research career at the University of California, Davis and the USDA-ARS. Dr. Pan is a world renowned expert of food engineering and sciences. He has made significant contribution in the research and development of new food and agricultural processing and postharvest technologies for producing nutritious, healthy and safe foods. He also developed effective technologies for value-added utilization of byproducts from food and agricultural product processing. He has authored more than 300 scientific publications, patents, books and book chapters.  Dr. Pan has received several prestigious awards, including 2007 Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers, 2007 Herbert L. Rothbart Outstanding Early Career Research Scientist Award of the USDA-ARS, 2008 Bring Charm to the World Award in China, 2012 Distinguished Career Award – Association of Overseas Chinese Agricultural, Biological, and Food Engineers, 2017 China Government Friendship Award, 2017 Award for Outstanding Commercialization Success – Federal Laboratory Consortium (Far West), 2017 Technology Transfer Award – Pacific West Area, USDA-ARS, and 2017 Life Achievement Award – Chinese American Food Society.

Ragab Khir, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Food Engineering, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, and Project Scientist at the Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of California, Davis, USA.

Dr. Khir graduated in 1991 from the Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, Egypt, with a degree in Agricultural Engineering. He obtained an M.S. degree from the Suez Canal University, and a Ph.D. degree through a joint program between University of California, Davis, and Suez Canal University in 2008. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 2014. Following years of teaching at Suez Canal University, he moved to the University of California, Davis, to work as a Postdoctoral Scholar specializing in Food Engineering from 2011 to 2017, and as Project Scientist from 2017 till present.

Dr. Khir’s research interests are focused on developing infrared radiation (IR) heating technologies for food processing that have promising merits, including improved product quality and safety, increased energy and processing efficiency, reduction in water and chemical usage, improving consistency and accuracy of rice milling appraisals, and characterizing properties of food products. He has led research to demonstrate and commercialize the newly developed IR food processing technologies for improved food healthfulness, quality, and safety while saving energy and water during food processing. He has received the Technology Transfer Award in 2017.

Dr. Khir has authored and co-authored more than 105 publications, including book chapters, technical reports, proceeding papers and posters, and peer-reviewed articles published and cited in internationally recognized and peer-reviewed journals. He has presented his achievements as a plenary session speaker at many international conferences and as an invited speaker on many occasions. He is a reviewer for several peer-reviewed journals. Dr. Khir is a member of the American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE), Institute of Food Technologists (IFT), International Commission of Agricultural Engineers (CIGR), and Egyptian Society of Agricultural Engineering.

978-1-60595-191-1, June 2018, 690 pages, 6×9, HC book

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