The Use of Nanomaterials in Food Contact Materials

Design, Application, Safety

Edited by Rob Veraart, Ph.D., Scientist, Keller and Heckman, Belgium

 

 

ISBN: 978-1-60595-136-2, April 2017, 390 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

 

“Do not proceed with a nano product development until everyone on the team has had a chance to read this excellent book.”  Read More in the Reviews tab below.

• Explains methods for detecting and sizing nanoparticles in food processing and packaging
• Covers materials, laminates, inks, coatings and antimicrobials
• Clarifies risks of nanoparticle migration from packaging
• Assesses dangers to consumers and spells out safety measures
• Outlines food and nanomaterials laws from Europe, Asia, North and South America


This volume surveys the problems, assesses the risks, and presents solutions regarding the use of nanomaterials in food-contact materials such as packaging and preparation surfaces. The book explains how and why nanoparticles are applied in packaging materials, inks, coatings and antimicrobials. Special attention is given to methods for determining the size and shape of nanoparticles. Within this framework, experimental and modeling information are provided on the safety risks caused by migration of molecular and sub-molecular-sized particles from packaging. The book investigates the vectors and probabilities of nanoparticle ingestion by consumers. A primary feature of this book is a review of laws governing nanomaterials in the food industry from Europe, Asia, South and North America.

Chapter 1. Introduction
Rob Veraart
1.1. References

Chapter 2. Nanometric Inorganic Fillers in Food Contact Materials
Giuliana Gorrasi and Andrea Sorrentino
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Zero Dimensional Nanomaterials
2.3. One Dimensional Nanomaterials
2.4. Two Dimensional Nanomaterials
2.5. Trends and Perspectives
2.6. References

Chapter 3. The Use of Nanomaterials in Food Contact Articles
Victoria Sayer
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Petition to the EU Titanium Nitride
3.3. Re-evaluation of the Titanium Nitride
3.4. Petition to the FDA for Titanium Nitride
3.5. References

Chapter 4. Nanomaterials in Printing Inks for Food Packaging
Matthias Henker
4.1. Food Packaging and Consumer Safety
4.2. Printing Technologies
4.3. Composition and Chemistry of Printing Inks
4.4. Fastness Properties of Printing Inks
4.5. Pigments in Liquid Printing Inks
4.6. Pigments in Dry Printing Ink Films
4.7. Set-off and Fastness of Printing Ink Films
4.8. References

Chapter 5. Silver Based Materials—Applications and Legal Situation
Gregor Schneider
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Silver Use
5.3. Nanosilver as a New Technology
5.4. Use of Silver in Food Contact Materials
5.5. Nanospecific Safety Assessment
5.6. Summary and Conclusion
5.7. References

Chapter 6. The Status of the EU Legislation on Substances in Nanoform in Food Contact Materials
Rachida Semail and Hazel O’Keeffe
6.1. The EC Recommendation on the Definition of Nanomaterial
6.2. EU Sector-Specific Definitions of a Nanomaterial
6.3. Regulation of Nanomaterials in the EU Food-Contact Legislation

Chapter 7. The Status of the EU Member State Legislation on Nanomaterials in Food Contact Materials
Rachida Semail and Hazel O’Keeffe
7.1. Introduction
7.2. The Draft German Printing Inks Ordinance
7.3. The Dutch Packaging and Utensils Regulation
7.4. The Belgian Coatings Order
7.5. Overview of Registers for Substances in Nanoform in Individual Member States
7.6. Conclusion

Chapter 8. Regulation of Nanotechnology in Food-Contact Applications in the United States and in Canada
Joan Sylvain Baughan
8.1. Definitions of Nanotechnology
8.2. Systems for Regulating Nanotechnology in Food-Contact Applications in the USA
8.3. Canadian Regulation of Nanotechnology in Food-Contact Materials
8.4. Conclusion

Chapter 9. Legislative Status of Nanomaterials in Food-Contact Materials in Asia Pacific
Mark Thompson
9.1. China
9.2. Japan
9.3. India
9.4. Indonesia
9.5. The Philippines
9.6. Malaysia
9.7. Singapore
9.8. South Korea
9.9. Taiwan
9.10. Thailand
9.11. Vietnam

Chapter 10. Use of Nanomaterials for Food Packaging in Latin American and Caribbean Countries
Alejandro Ariosti and Marisa Padula
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Latin American and Caribbean Food Contact Materials Regulations
10.3. Research and Development on Food Contact Nanomaterials in Latin American and Caribbean Countries
10.4. Trends: Public and Industrial Perception and Future Trends in Safety/Regulatory Aspects in Latin American and Caribbean Countries
10.5. Conclusions
10.6. References

Chapter 11. Particle Sizing Techniques for Nanoparticles and Nanomaterials
William Kopesky, Eric Olson and Ryan Keefer
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Dispersion
11.3. LASER Diffraction Introduction and History
11.4. DLS/Photon Correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) History
11.5. NTA Introduction and History
11.6. Fractionation Techniques
11.7. References

Chapter 12. Analytical Techniques to Characterize Nanomaterials in Pristine Form and as Used in Food Contact Materials
Monita Sharma
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Analytical Techniques to Characterize Nanomaterials in Their Pristine Form
12.3. Analytical Techniques to Characterize Nanomaterials in Food and Food Contact Materials
12.4. Case Studies of Nanomaterials Used in Food Packaging/Contact Materials
12.5. Conclusions
12.6. References

Chapter 13. Toxicological Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials Used in Food Contact Materials
David Carlander
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Toxicity of Nanomaterials in FCMS
13.3. Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials Used in Food Contact Materials
13.4. Conclusion
13.5. References

Chapter 14. Determination of Migration of Nanoparticles from Food Contact Materials
Rob Veraart
14.1. Introduction
14.2. Which Size of the Nanoparticles Needs to be Determined?
14.3. Sampling and Preparation of Samples for Migration Testing
14.4. Sample Pretreatment of the Simulants Obtained
14.5. Fractionation Methods of Migrated Nanoparticles
14.6. Ensemble Methods for Detection of Migrated Nanoparticles
14.7. Counting Methods for Migrated Nanoparticles
14.8. Other Methods
14.9. Conclusions
14.10. References

Chapter 15. Mathematic Modelling of Migration of Nanoparticles from Food Contact Polymers
Roland Franz and Frank Welle
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Migration Modelling of Conventional Polymer Additives
15.3. Migration Modelling of Nanoparticles from Plastics Food Contact Materials
15.4. Summary and Conclusions
15.5. References

List of Acronyms
Index

  1. :

    A starkly relevant look into the design, related legislation, and migration of an irresistible subject – nanomaterials – for food packaging. Looking back on the early years of nanotechnology when the understanding of the impact on food packaging was slight, this text highlights how pervasive the technology has become and the potential it has. The text engagingly covers a lot of ground with specifics and a high level of detail. The authors examine applications and design, interesting global legislative differences, and then modeling for migration determinations. This section has broad appeal as it connects the nanotechnology to migration of other substances with rationale. Its high degree of accessibility is due to linkages between design, regulations, and the rationale of migration modeling.

    Claire Koelsch Sand,
    CEO, Packaging Technology and Research, LLC
    Adjunct, Michigan State University and CalPoly

  2. :

    The decision to use something nano in a product has far-reaching consequences. Introducing nanoparticles raises lots of difficult technical questions, many of which involve keeping the nano from becoming micro. But however well-prepared you are for the technical challenges, you also need to know and understand the regulatory ones. Indeed, the planning and budgeting for not violating regulatory and legal standards should be part of any project from day 1, and it is here where the book under review stands out.

    This book offers valuable and not readily accessible information on global rules governing the application of nano in food-contact materials, plus technical data on how the rules are determined. Even if your product is not food-related, most of the content of the book can be applied to nanomaterials in a wide range of consumer goods. If you know how to achieve food contact standards, meeting the standards required of your specific industry is not likely to be any harder.

    As a scientist, you might think your specific nanomaterial poses no significant threat compared to a non-nano equivalent. You might simply be using a particle size smaller than that used in similar common and safe products. But like it or not, regulatory authorities in many countries have identified nano as a potential hazard requiring specific attention because of unknown unknowns. It is up to you to prove your nano-containing product is safe, and not for them to prove it is not safe. In addition, relevant national regulations are confused, confusing, and arguably out of proportion to the objective risks.

    How should you address this situation? The first step is to have everyone on your team read this book, which is amazingly accessible and never hides behind legalistic or bureaucratic language. Technical specialists will find plenty of insightful science connected to legal requirements. At the same time, regulatory experts have here a clear and reasoned exposition of rules and requirements from large and small nations in all trade zones. Because there are so many technical and regulatory documents to consider, the book is worth it just for the links it provides to (mostly online) resources.

    Once the scope of regulations is realized, the real work must begin, which is to provide authorities with proof that your nanomaterial in your product will not cause harm. If the material is commonly used and if your technical team decide the bulk of it can be comfortably over 100nm in each dimension, then you might decide that some technical compromises compared to, say, 80nm particles, are outweighed by the fact that things over 100nm are accepted around the world as non-nano. How close to the edge can you go and not fall into a statutory definition of “nano”? That’s for you to decide after a close reading of the discussions in the book about multiple definitions. For example, is your particle more than 50% number average over 100nm for Europe and more than 90% weight average for the US and Canada? For those on the team who don’t understand the distinction between number and weight average, the book has a clear explanation.

    To prove your nano product is safe you have to prove a negative- – that it poses no risks. How do you do that? Here the book has case studies where suppliers do what they do with any other material (e.g., for REACH regulations): patiently show due diligence in analyzing possible risks. Regulatory authorities can be convinced that particles locked into a matrix are not going to pose a risk, provided you do the relevant studies and calculations to show particles will not escape under plausible circumstances. For example, TiN nanoparticles within polymers are accepted because manufacturers have demonstrated how well they are locked in AND that the levels of Ti are far lower than those found in cornflakes AND that the level of Ti-containing nanoparticles is far below naturally-occurring levels. In other cases, some alarming increases in measured concentrations of the key element in a nanoparticle could be shown to be due to dissolved material, not nanoparticles. And since dissolved material is no longer nano and given that its conventional safety profile is known, the fact that a nanomaterial dissolves is a major factor in demonstrating an absence of extra risk.

    How do we know the authorities can be convinced by rational arguments, and what would they accept as rational? Here the book offers specific help. The JRC has issued guidelines and the book not only provides links to those guidelines but takes us through the chain of logic required. I typed “JRC” deliberately. The nanosafety field is littered with acronyms, which the book is forced to use. I often forgot what was what, but there is a wonderful look-up table with over 300 acronyms, and it never let me down. “JRC” refers to the initials of the EU’s Joint Research Centre, an entity expending considerable resources to help define the levels of risks of nanomaterials. If you want to demonstrate low migration, you have to have a plausible material to migrate into. For foods, this will one of the commonly accepted simulants. Knowing the simulant, how do you prepare your sample and how do you identify how much nanoparticle has migrated? The regulators realize these are difficult questions; the book has plenty of plausible answers written by technical people who clearly know what they are talking about and who do not mask the practical problems.

    You cannot test everything, so you also have to model migration. The chapter on modelling is superb. Having set the scene with models of smaller molecules diffusing through common polymers, the same equations can be used with defensible values of diffusion coefficients for nanoparticles of a given size. Anyone familiar with the field will know that these diffusion coefficients are super-small (the book estimates D=10-45 for a 10nm particle in PET). So, the calculations will generally yield the obvious answer that very little migrates out. The conclusion may be obvious, but if you do the work using rational models (and citing the models in the book would be my choice of “rational”), then you have shown necessary due diligence. I have implemented some of the diffusion coefficient equations from the book as an app within the Diffusion Science section of my Practical Solubility website. You can estimate the super-low diffusion coefficients then model them in my Fickian Diffusion app. If you can then point out that, for example, your particles are chemically locked into the matrix and that the low diffusion rate is an upper limit, so much the better.

    Having proven only a small number of particles can escape, how do you then prove that that small number is safe? For non-nano contaminants, if you can show that migration levels are <0.05mg/kg of food, then the tox data you have to provide is limited. For nanomaterials, even low levels are considered to be potentially risky, so full tox testing (including on rats) is required. You have to show “no migration” to avoid all this. What is “no migration”? My reading of the advice is that this means “no particles detected using sensible techniques,” but here again the burden of proof remains with you. The details of the requirements will vary for non-food applications, but the principles are the same.

    I read the book with the mindset of “if I had to bring a nano-containing product to market, how helpful would it be to have this book?” Writing this review forced me to go back and forth through the book checking whether it really covered X or provided any useful information on Y. In this context, the book does an outstanding job against a mission impossible. There are no easy answers because the regulatory authorities are struggling to come to terms with the challenges of nano. Whatever happens, you have to prepare a safety dossier, even if the same material in non-nano form is already acceptably safe. The more evidence you have that the substance itself is not harmful (so the data from the non-nano form is useful) and that it is locked safely away, the easier it is to demonstrate an absence of harm in the nano form.
    Books with multiple authors can often be repetitive and lack purpose. The editor has done a good job of constructing a coherent narrative, with each chapter contributing something unique to the overall picture and with rather little duplication.

    My conclusion repeats what I stated earlier. Do not proceed with a nano product development until everyone on the team has had a chance to read this excellent book. It provides regulations and the technical reasons for them, along with analytical guidance and modeling information, thus enabling all users of nano to carry out their own experiments and independently examine the risks of adding nanoparticles to products.

    One final note. Because it focuses on the safety of finished products, the book does not cover the many safety issues in creating and handling nanoparticles during processing. In my (biased) view, the best guide on how to work with unknown unknowns in the lab and in production is the final chapter of another DEStech book, Nanocoatings: Principles and Practice, by Abbott and Holmes.

    Professor Steven Abbott FRSC
    Director Steven Abbott TCNF Ltd
    Visiting Professor University of Leeds

ISBN: 978-1-60595-136-2, April 2017, 390 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

 

“Do not proceed with a nano product development until everyone on the team has had a chance to read this excellent book.”  Read More in the Reviews tab below.

USD Price: $164.50

USD Price: $164.50

$139.50

You Save: $25.00

ISBN: 978-1-60595-136-2 Categories: , ,