The Science of Wastewater

Frank R. Spellman, Ph.D., Safety Manager (ret.), Hampton Roads Sanitation District, Virginia

978-1-60595-250-5, June 2016, 508 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Problem-based and practical introduction to the sciences required to treat wastewater
  • Covers standard formulas governing unit processes and summarizes material essential for certification and licensure
  • Explains key calculations governing unit operations in treatment plants

The scientific properties of different types of wastewater and the unit processes used to transform it into effluent of sufficient quality to be returned to the environment are explained in this comprehensive text.  The book presents detailed descriptions of, and mathematical formulas for, wastewater treatment processes–from “dirty” influent to drinking-water-quality discharge. Operations include: filtering and activated sludge, detention basins, ponds and lagoons, and the stabilization and composting of biosolids.

Chapters explain the basics of the multiple sciences needed to master wastewater treatment:  mathematics, hydraulics, chemistry, and electricity, as well as plant-specific methods used in sedimentation, biological contractors, pumping, chemical dosing, lab analysis and more. Unit processes are illustrated with examples from facilities, as well as by explanations of formulas and step-by-step calculations.

To the Reader

Part I: Basic Wastewater Science

Chapter 1. Wastewater Math Operations
1.1. Introduction
1.2. Calculation Steps
1.3. Table of Equivalents, Formulae and Symbols
1.4. Basic Wastewater Math Operations
1.5. Chemical Dosage Calculations
1.6. Complex Conversions
1.7. Mass Balance and Measuring Plant Performance

Chapter 2. Wastewater Hydraulics
2.1. Basic Wastewater Hydraulics
2.2. References and Recommended Reading

Chapter 3. Wastewater Chemistry
3.1. Setting the Stage
3.2. Chemistry Concepts and Definitions
3.3. Chemistry Fundamentals
3.4. Water Solutions
3.5. Water Constituents
3.6. Common Water Measurements
3.7. References and Recommended Reading

Chapter 4. Wastewater and Electrical Interface
4.1. Fundamentals of Electricity
4.2. Nature of Electricity
4.3. The Structure of Matter
4.4. Conductors, Semiconductors, and Insulators
4.5. Static Electricity
4.6. Magnetism
4.7. Difference in Potential
4.8. Current Flow
4.9. Resistance
4.10. Battery-Supplied Electricity
4.11. Simple Electric Circuit
4.12. Ohm’s Law
4.13. Electrical Power
4.14. Electrical Energy
4.15. Series D-C Circuit Characteristics
4.16. Ground
4.17. Parallel D-C Circuits
4.18. Parallel Circuit Characteristics
4.19. Series-Parallel Circuits
4.20. Conductors
4.21. Electromagnetism
4.22. A-C Theory
4.23. Practical Electrical Applications

Part II: Applied Wastewater Math Operations

Chapter 5. Preliminary Treatment Calculations
5.1. Preliminary Treatment

Chapter 6. Primary Sedimentation Calculations
6.1. Primary Sedimentation

Chapter 7. Treatment Ponds
7.1. Wastewater Treatment Ponds

Chapter 8. Trickling Filters
8.1. Trickling Filters

Chapter 9. Rotating Biological Contractors
9.1. Rotating Biological Contractors

Chapter 10. Activated Sludge (Biosolids)
10.1. Activated Sludge (Biosolids)

Chapter 11. Mass Balance
11.1. Mass Balance: Settling Tank Suspended Solids

Chapter 12. Chemical Dosing
12.1. Chemical Dosing

Chapter 13. Chemical Solutions
13.1. Chemical Solutions

Chapter 14. Process Residuals
14.1. Process Residuals

Chapter 15. Biosolids Thickening
15.1. Biosolids Thickening

Chapter 16. Centrifuge Thickening Calculations
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Thickening Calculations

Chapter 17. Biosolids Digestion/Stabilization
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Aerobic Digestion Process Control Calculations
17.3. Anaerobic Digestion Process Control Calculation

Chapter 18. Biosolids Dewatering and Disposal
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Pressure Filtration Calculations

Chapter 19. Sand Drying Beds
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Sand Drying Beds Process Control Calculations

Chapter 20. Biosolids Disposal
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Land Application Calculations

Chapter 21. Biosolids to Compost
21.1. Biosolids to Compost

Chapter 22. Wastewater Laboratory Calculations
22.1. Basic Laboratory Calculations
22.2. Composite Sampling Calculation
22.3. Biochemical Oxygen Demand Calculations
22.4. Moles and Molarity
22.5. Settleability (Activated Biosolids Solids)

Chapter 23. Wastewater Calculations and Solutions
23.1. Introduction
23.2. Wastewater Collection and Preliminary Treatment
23.3. Additional Wastewater Collection and Practice Calculations
23.4. Primary Treatment (Sedimentation)
23.5. Trickling Filters
23.6. Rotating Biological Contractors
23.7. General RBC Calculations
23.8. Activated Sludge
23.9. General Activated Sludge Calculations
23.10. Waste Treatment Ponds
23.11. General Wastewater Treatment Pond Calculations
23.12. Chemical Dosage
23.13. General Chemical Dosage Calculation
23.14. Sludge Production and Thickening
23.15. General Sludge Production and Thickening Calculations
23.16. Wastewater Sludge Digestion
23.17. General Digester Calculations
23.18. Sludge Dewatering
23.19. General Sludge Dewatering Calculations

24. Wastewater Math Practice Problems
24.1. Introduction
24.2. Practice Problems
24.3. References and Recommended Reading

Appendix A—Solutions to Chapter 24 Practice Problems

978-1-60595-250-5, June 2016, 508 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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