The ICC Handbook of Cereals, Flour, Dough & Product Testing, Second Edition

Methods and Applications

Edited by: Stanley P. Cauvain with Rosie Clark, Assistant Editor, BakeTran, High Wycombe, Buckinghamshire, UK

978-1-60595-104-1, March 2017, 531 pages, 6×9, Hardcover or eBook

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• Critical test methods and equipment for all grain-based food products — breads, cookies, cakes, pastries, breakfast cereals, noodles, pet foods and more
• Updated industry-standard resource for cereal, flour and dough testing
• Adds online testing, advanced data analysis, and many new tests for low-salt dough, baking powder, specialized flours and more
• Covers certification analysis for organic, ancient grains, GMOs, gluten-free
• Tests for wheat, corn, oats, rice, millet, rye, sorghum, spelt
• Produced with the International Association for Cereal Science and Technology (ICC)


This is an enlarged and updated version of a reference that explains virtually all important test methods regarding grain-based foods, from in-field, post-harvest through mill intake to processed products, including breads, cookies, cakes, crackers, noodles and more. The enlarged book adds information for handling larger data sets, improving data reliability, and integrating online testing methods with off- and in-line techniques. More specifically, this edition adds and explains tests for specialized flours, self-rising doughs, baking powders and grains. New material is provided on breadmaking and noodle testing, including Ramen. Throughout, an emphasis is placed on practical connections between testing, quality control and superior end-product properties. In addition, the book explains testing equipment, including specific devices and their applications.

Preface

1. Introduction to Testing Methods and Their Applications
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN

–The Reliability of Measurements

–Food Safety and Quality Systems

–References

–Further Information on Testing and Standards

 

2. The Application of Cereal Testing Methods in Cereals Breeding Programmes
L. O’BRIEN and R. L. CRACKNELL

–Introduction

–Breeding Behaviour and its Influence on Application of Testing Methods

–Factors Influencing Application of Testing Methods

–Importance of Experimental Design

–General Requirements of Early Generation Cereal Testing Methods

  1. The Importance of Testing a Representative Sample
  2. Physical Assessment and Tests of Grain
  3. Grain Processing

–Converting Grain to Flour, Wholemeal or Grits

  1. Pre-treatment of Grain Prior to First Stage Processing
  2. Determining Grain Moisture Content
  3. Determination of Grain Protein Content

–Pre-treatment of Grain Prior to First Stage Processing

–Wheat

  1. Tests for Grain Hardness
  2. Tests for Grain Protein Content
  3. Estimating Flour Colour
  4. Estimating End-product Quality
  5. Physicochemical Tests of Quality
  6. Physical Dough Tests of Quality
  7. Moving from the Phenotype to the Genotype and to the Gene Level
  8. DNA Based Measurements of Quality

–Durum Wheat

–Barley

–Testing for Malting Quality

  1. Grain Quality
  2. Grain Protein Content
  3. Micromalting
  4. Malt Quality
  5. Small-scale Tests
  6. DNA Based Selection

–Oats

–Maize (Corn)

  1. DNA Based Selection Methods

–Some Useful Web Sites

–References

 

 3. Testing Cereals in the Field and at the Store and its Relevance to End-product Performance
R.H. WILLIAMS, D.G. BHANDARI, S.C.W. HOOK and G.J. JELLIS

–Introduction

–Sulphur

–Nitrogen

–Orange Wheat Blossom Midge

–Fusarium Mycotoxins

–Amylase/Germination Testing

–Moisture Determination

  1. Moisture Meters
  2. Sampling
  3. Temperature Effects
  4. Grinder Effects
  5. Operational Considerations
  6. Overall Accuracy of Meters
  7. Probes
  8. Measuring Situations

–Storage Insects and Mites

–Mycotoxin Testing (Out-loading)

–Grain Condition Post-harvest (In-store)

  1. Grain Properties
  2. Physical Condition
  3. Admixture
  4. Ergot
  5. Seed Health
  6. Insect Damage
  7. Rodent Droppings

–Conclusion

–References

 

4. Using Cereal Testing at Mill Intake
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN

–Introduction

–Grains Testing at Intake

  1. Sampling
  2. Grain Appearance and Sensory Properties
  3. Impurities and Contaminants – Besatz, Dockage, Screenings
  4. Grain Safety
  5. Grain Microbiology
  6. The Bulk Density of Grain (Hectolitre Mass, Bushel Mass, Test Weight, Specific Weight)
  7. Grain Hardness
  8. Moisture Content
  9. Protein Content
  10. Gluten Content and Quality
  11. Measuring Alpha-amylase and Other Enzymic Activity

–Testing Single Grain Varieties

–Testing Agreed Specifications

–The Test Milling of Grains

–Organic, Spelt and Other Ancient Grains

–Durum Wheat

–Conclusions

–References

 

5. Applications of Testing Methods in Flour Mills
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN

–Introduction

–An Outline of Grain Milling Processes

  1. Grain Processing
  2. Wheat
  3. The Adjustment of Wheat Moisture Content for Milling
  4. Rye/triticale
  5. Barley

–Testing Wheat Flour Milling Stocks during Production

  1. Bran Specks in White Flour                     
  2. Moisture
  3. Protein Content
  4. Colour
  5. Ash
  6. Damaged Starch

–Checking the Final Flour

  1. Moisture
  2. Protein Content
  3. Adding Dried Gluten
  4. Protein Quality
  5. Ash and Colour
  6. Measuring Alpha-amylase and other Enzymic Activity
  7. Damaged Starch
  8. Water Absorption Capacity
  9. Particle Size
  10. Extraneous Matter (Filth) Test
  11. Microbiology, Mycotoxins and Other Contaminants
  12. End-use Performance
  13. Dietary Fibre

–Testing Wholemeal Wheat Flours

–The Modification of Wheat Flour

  1. Bleaching of Bread Flours
  2. Chlorination of Cake Flours
  3. Heat Treatment

–Additions to and Fortification of Wheat Flours

–Analysing Animal Feeds

–Malted Wheat and Barley Products for Foods

  1. Overview of the Manufacture of Malted Products
  2. Testing Malted Products

–References

 

6. The Relevance of Testing to the Manufacture of Bread and Fermented Products
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN

–Introduction

–A Synopsis of Breadmaking Processes

  1. Sour-dough Processes
  2. Straight Dough Bulk Fermentation
  3. Sponge and Dough
  4. Rapid Processing (No-time Dough)
  5. Mechanical Dough Development

–Dough Processing from Divider to Prover

–Expansion in the Prover and Structure Setting in the Oven

–The Relationship between Flour Properties and Bread Quality

  1. Assessing Dough Rheology during Mixing
  2. Assessing Dough Rheology after Mixing
  3. Gas Production and Gas Retention
  4. Fundamental Measurement of Dough Properties
  5. Dough Stickiness
  6. Applications of Dough Rheology Testing

–Testing Rye Flours

–Test Baking

–Bread Flour Specifications

–Assessing Bread and Fermented Product Quality

  1. External Character
  2. Internal Quality
  3. Texture, Eating Quality and Flavour

–References

 

7. The Relevance of Testing to the Manufacture of Biscuits (Cookies), Cakes and Pastries
STANLEY P. CAUVAIN

–Introduction

–A Synopsis of Biscuit (Cookie) Making Processes

–The Relationship between Flour Properties and Biscuit (Cookie) Quality

  1. Measuring Biscuit Dough Rheology and Consistency
  2. Measuring Batter Viscosity

–Biscuit (Cookie) Flour Specifications

–Assessing Biscuit (Cookie) Quality

–A Synopsis of Cake Making Processes

–The Relationship between Flour Properties and Cake Quality

  1. Measuring Batter Viscosity

–Cake Flour Specifications

–Assessing Cake Quality

  1. Moisture Content and Water Activity

–A Synopsis of Cake Making Processes

–The Relationship Between Flour Properties and Cake Quality

  1. Measuring Paste Rheology
  2. Measuring Paste Consistency

–Pastry Flour Specifications

–Assessing Pastry Quality

–Test Baking for Biscuits, Cookies, Cakes and Pastries

  1. Biscuits and Cookies
  2. Cakes
  3. Pastry

–References

 

8. Cereals Testing in the Manufacture of Extruded Products
ROBIN C.E. GUY

–Manufacture of Foods Using Extrusion Cooking Technologies

–Raw Materials Used to Manufacture Extruded Products

–Chemical Analysis

–Physical Analysis of Raw Materials

  1. Particle Interactions
  2. Particle Size
  3. Particle Hardness

–The Assessment of Products

–Physical Methods for Assessing Products

  1. Size and Shape
  2. Mass, Specific Density and Bulk Density
  3. Cellular Structures in Extrudates
  4. Image Analysis
  5. X-ray Tomography
  6. Moisture Content
  7. Colour of Extrudates

–Chemical Analysis

–Physical Texture Analysis

–Sensory Analysis

–References

 

9. Applications for Non-wheat Testing Methods
JOHN R.N. TAYLOR and KWAKU G. DUODU

–Introduction

–Maize

  1. Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
  2. Yellow and White Maize
  3. Waxy and High Maize
  4. Quality Protein Maize
  5. Prediction of Processing Quality
  6. Grain Density
  7. Stress Cracks and Kernel Breakage
  8. Grain Hardness and Vitreousness
  9. Fermentability
  10. Lime Cooking

–Prediction of End-use Quality

  1. Porridge Making Quality
  2. Dry Masa Quality
  3. Popcorn Popping Quality

–Sorghum

  1. Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
  2. Grain Colour
  3. Tannins
  4. Speciality Sorghums
  5. Prediction of Processing Quality
  6. Grain Density and Hardness
  7. Grain Hardness and Corneousness
  8. Fermentability
  9. Prediction of End-use Quality
  10. Foods
  11. Malt

 

–Millets

  1. Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
  2. Prediction of Processing Quality
  3. Dry Milling Quality
  4. Prediction of End-use Quality
  5. Foods
  6. Malt

–Rice

  1. Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
  2. Prediction of Processing Quality
  3. Rice Processing
  4. Rice Types
  5. Kernel Dimensions
  6. Kernel Milling Quality
  7. Kernel Fissuring
  8. Degree of Milling
  9. Prediction of End-use Quality
  10. Grain Colour
  11. Gelatinisation Temperature and Pasting Characteristics
  12. Gel Consistency
  13. Hydration during Cooking
  14. Elongation Ratio
  15. Cooked Rice Texture
  16. Amylose Content
  17. Aroma

Oats

  1. Special Structural and Chemical Characteristics
  2. Prediction of Processing Quality
  3. Oat Quality
  4. Milling Yield
  5. Prediction of End-use Quality
  6. Beta-glucan

–Useful General References

–References

 

10. Testing for Food Safety
ROLAND ERNEST POMS

 –Introduction

 –Use of Mycotoxin Analyses

  1. Context
  2. Regulatory and Contractual Compliance
  3. Mycotoxin-food Combinations and Frequency of Testing
  4. Conclusion
  5. References

 

–Acoustic Testing for Deoxynivalenol (DON) in Wheat Grains

  1. Introduction
  2. The Development of the Acoustic Method
  3. Use of Acoustic Method for Analysis of DON in Grain
  4. Grain Samples
  5. The Dependence between Acoustic Signal Parameters and DON Content in Grains
  6. Acoustic Method Calibration, Validation and Grain Moisture Testing
  7. Acoustic Method Validation
  8. Future Trends in the Development of Acoustics
  9. Conclusions
  10. Acknowledgement
  11. References

 

–Rapid Testing for Food Safety in Cereals and Flour: Gluten and Food Allergens

  1. Introduction
  2. Food Allergies – Food Intolerances
  3. Allergen Management
  4. Analysis
  5. Standardisation and Reference Materials
  6. In-house Validation, Collaborative Tests and Approvals
  7. Acknowledgements
  8. References

 

–The Occurrence of, and the Analysis for, Pesticide Residues in Cereal Grains and Processed Cereal Products

  1. The Use of Pesticides on Cereal Crops
  2. Regulations
  3. Other Processed Cereal Products
  4. Pesticides that are Commonly Found and Should be Targeted in Cereals Analysis
  5. Other Important Pesticides
  6. Plant Growth Regulators
  7. Glyphosate
  8. Post-harvest/Storage Pesticides
  9. Occurrence of Pesticide Residues in Cereal Grains
  10. Rice
  11. Oats
  12. Wheat
  13. Maize
  14. Methods of Analysis
  15. Laboratory Samples and Sample Preparation
  16. Extraction Efficiency
  17. Multi Residue Methods (MRMs)
  18. Single/Selective Residue Methods (SRMs)
  19. References

 

–Testing for Acrylamide

  1. Introduction
  2. Analysis of Acrylamide in Cereal Products
  3. Sampling, Pre-treatments and Extraction
  4. Extract Clean-up
  5. Chromatographic Separation and Detection
  6. Conclusion
  7. References

 

–GMO Testing Methods: Analytical Approaches, Method Validation and Sampling Strategy

  1. Introduction
  2. Sampling
  3. Analytical Approaches
  4. DNA-based Methods
  5. Quality of DNA Extracts
  6. Target Taxon Reference-systems
  7. Screening Methods
  8. Event-specific Methods
  9. Method Validation
  10. Protein-based Methods
  11. References

 

11. Testing for Animal Feed Production
EVA MARIA BINDER, PETRA HUBMAYER and GEORG MITTERER

–Introduction

–Testing for Microbiological Contaminants in Animal Feed

–Agricultural and Other Chemicals

  1. Dioxins
  2. Heavy Metals
  3. Pesticides

–Mycotoxins

  1. Mycotoxins Relevant in Animal Production
  2. Testing of Mycotoxins

–Conclusion

–References

 

12. The Relevance of Testing to the Manufacture of Asian Noodle Products
LARISA CATO

–Introduction

–Classification of Asian Noodles

  1. White Salted Noodles
  2. Yellow Alkaline Noodles

–Quality Requirements for Asian Noodles

  1. Flour and Noodle Colour
  2. Flour and Noodle Texture

–Methods for Testing Noodle Quality

  1. Sensory Evaluation of Noodles
  2. Sensory Evaluation of Udon Noodles
  3. Sensory Evaluation of Ramen Noodles
  4. Objective Evaluation of Asian Noodles
  5. Noodle Colour
  6. Image Analysis
  7. Noodle Texture

–Summary

–References

 

13. Cereals Testing Equipment and Kits

–Equipment Manufacturers        

–Introduction

  1. Brabender® GmbH & Co. KG
  2. Chopin Technologies®
  3. Elementar Analysensysteme GmbH
  4. Perten Instruments AB
  5. Stable Micro Systems
  6. C-Cell

–Testing Kit Suppliers

  1. Megazyme
  2. R-Biopharm AG

 

14. An Overview of ICC Cereals Testing Methods

–Introduction

–ICC Standard methods

  1. Sampling
  2. Testing Grains and Flour
  3. Chemical Analysis
  4. Rheological Testing
  5. Microbial and Contaminant Testing
  6. Rapid Methods
  7. Recommended Methods
  8. Draft Standard Methods

 

Index

 

Currently the director of BakeTran in the U.K., Stanley Cauvain is widely recognized as one of the world’s leading specialists in analyzing and testing materials and methods for cereal products, milling, and baking. He is a Fellow of the ICC Academy and a founding editor of the journal Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods.

Currently the director of BakeTran in the U.K., Stanley Cauvain is widely recognized as one of the world’s leading specialists in analyzing and testing materials and methods for cereal products, milling, and baking. He is a Fellow of the ICC Academy and a founding editor of the journal Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods.

978-1-60595-104-1, March 2017, 531 pages, 6×9, Hardcover or eBook

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