The Human Microbiome Handbook

Edited by: Jason Tetro and Emma Allen-Vercoe

with an Introduction by Sydney M. Finegold

978-1-60595-159-1, ©2017, 370 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Critical reference explains strategies of microbiome research in humans
  • Summarizes the microbiome’s effects on immunity, metabolism, genetics and psychology
  • Evaluates medical and nutritional therapies for modifying the microbiome
  • For healthcare researchers, nutritionists, microbiologists, and medical professionals

Written by a team of leading scientists, this book offers a concise technical reference covering human microbiome research and its ramifications for medicine and nutrition. The initial chapters furnish a scientific explanation of the microbiome in general and its ecology. The book then provides a detailed investigation of microbial populations as these pertain to physiology, metabolism and immunology. The final portions are devoted to exploration of the microbiome’s effects on chronic and autoimmune diseases and include assessments of clinical therapies and nutritional interventions designed to alter the microbiome to mitigate chronic health conditions.

Preface

Chapter 1. Some Historical Notes on Bowel Microflora
Sydney M. Finegold

Chapter 2. Ecology of the Human Microbiome
Kaludyna Borewicz and Hauke Smidt
2.1. Overview
2.2. Microbiota of the Gastrointestinal Tract
2.3. Microbial Composition in the GI Tract of Healthy Adults
2.4. Microbial Ecosystem Function in the GI Tract of Healthy Adults
2.5. Selected Diseases Associated with Dysbiosis of the Intestinal Microbiota
2.6. Acknowledgments
2.7. References

Chapter 3. From Birth to Old Age: Factors that Shape the Human Gut Microbiome
Alexandra Ntemiri, Catherine Stanton, R. Paul Ross and Paul W. O’Toole
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Establishment of the Gut Microbiota
3.3. Shaping Factors of Gut Microbiota Composition
3.4. Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome
3.5. Ageing and Microbiota Alterations
3.6. Concluding Remarks
3.7. References

Chapter 4. Microbial Biochemical Processes Critical to Human Health
Vicky De Preter and Kristin Verbeke
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Metabolic Function of the Colonic Microbiota
4.3. Carbohydrate Metabolism
4.4. Physiological Effects of Short-chain Fatty Acids
4.5. Short-chain Fatty Acids as Signaling Molecules
4.6. The Role of Short-chain Fatty Acids in the Immune Response
4.7. Fermentation of Proteins
4.8. Microbial Metabolism of Polyphenols
4.9. Conclusion
4.10. References

Chapter 5. The Gut Microbiome: Pathways to Brain, Stress, and Behavior
Aadil Bharwani, John Bienenstock and Paul Forsythe
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Evidence of Microbiota–CNS Interactions
5.3. Biological Underpinnings of Neural Communication
5.4. Conclusion
5.5. Acknowledgements
5.6. References

Chapter 6. Effects on Immunity
Leandro A. Lobo, Rosana B.R. Ferreira and L. Caetano M. Antunes
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Germ Free Mice
6.3. Galt Formation
6.4. Small Molecules, the Microbiome, and the Immune System
6.5. The Impact of Other Microbiomes on Host Immunity
6.6. The Impact of the Microbiota on Immune Disorders
6.7. Conclusion
6.8. References

Chapter 7. Microbiota-Related Modulation of Metabolic Processes in the Body
Tingting Ju, Jiaying Li and Benjamin P. Willing
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Short-chain Fatty Acids
7.3. Microbiota and Bile Acid Metabolism
7.4. Gut Microbiota, TMAO, and Atherosclerosis
7.5. Metabolic Inflammation
7.6. Early Life Microbiome Programming Metabolic Outcomes
7.7. Conclusion
7.8. References

Chapter 8. An Overview of Microbiota-Associated Gastrointestinal Diseases
Claudia Herrera, Virginia Robles-Alonso and Francisco Guarner
8.1. Host-microbes Interactions in the Gastrointestinal Tract
8.2. Antibiotics and Risk of Disease
8.3. The Gut Microbiota in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
8.4. The Gut Microbiota in Functional Bowel Disorders
8.5. The Gut Microbiota in Liver Diseases
8.6. References

Chapter 9. An Overview of Microbiota-Associated Epigenetic Disorders
Dawn D. Kingsbury and Holly H. Ganz
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Microbial Influence on Human Health
9.3. Conclusions
9.4. References

Chapter 10. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Gastrointestinal Disease
Rowena Almeida and Elaine O. Petrof
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Basic Concepts in Intestinal Microbiome Function
10.3. Introduction to Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
10.4. Applications of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation
10.5. Summary
10.6. References

Chapter 11. Probiotics and the Microbiome
Gregor Reid
11.1. A Long History of Time
11.2. Rationale for Modulating Health
11.3. The Constantly Growing List and How the Strains Function
11.4. Probiotics and Microbiome Mysteries
11.5. References

Chapter 12. Considering the Microbiome as Part of Future Medicine and Nutrition Strategies
Emma Allen-Vercoe
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Mining the Human Microbiota for New Drugs
12.3. Protecting the Gut Microbiota from Collateral Damage during Antibiotic Exposure
12.4. Microbial Ecosystem Therapeutics
12.5. Predicting the Influence of Xenobiotics on the Human Microbiota
12.6. Leveraging Microbiome Knowledge to Optimize Nutrition Strategies
12.7. Summary
12.8. References

Index

Emma Allen-Vercoe completed her BSc. (Hons.) In biochemistry from the University of London, UK, and her PhD in molecular microbiology. Allen-Vercoe’s lab at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada, houses an innovative platform that facilitates culturing of human microbiota ecosystems in vitro and permits study of microbial ecosystem responses to stressors affecting human health.

Jason A. Tetro earned his BSc. (Hons.) in Applied Biochemistry from the University of Guelph, Canada, and continued his research at the University of Ottawa as a member of the Centre for Research on Environmental Microbiology and the Emerging Pathogens Research Centre. His research primarily focused on the interruption of pathogen spread in food, blood, and both animate and inanimate surfaces.

978-1-60595-159-1, ©2017, 370 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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