Functional Foods, Nutraceuticals and Natural Products

Concepts and Applications

Edited by: Dhiraj A. Vattem, Ph.D. and Vatsala Maitin, Ph.D., Texas State University

978-1-60595-101-0, ©2016, 836 pages, 6×9, Hardcover
Student price available

  • Bioactive ingredients in foods and their pharmacological and health effects.
  • Functional foods and bioactives of microbial, plant and animal origin, including probiotics, herbs, spices, vegetables, specialty fruits, seafood and milk components.
  • Impact on the microbiome, emerging metabolic pathways and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases.
  • Techniques for functional food development and evaluation.
  • Regulatory and safety considerations.

This volume presents basic and advanced technical information on the sources, mechanisms and safety of food bioactives in the etiology and prevention of chronic and infectious diseases. In this context, it offers details useful not only for understanding but also improving the functionality of foods. It reviews advances in multiple phytochemicals and food ingredients known for positive effects on human physiology, including interactions with the human microbiome. Metabolomic and proteomic techniques are explored as ways of improving the understanding of mechanisms of action, and increasing the therapeutic effectiveness of selected food ingredients. Special attention is given to chemistry, molecular structure and pharmacological effects of bioactive ingredients. Bioactives from a wide range of foods are investigated, including pro- and prebiotics, fungi, yeasts, herbs, spices, fruits, vegetables, seafood and many more. The text provides systematic information needed to develop and validate commercial products incorporating functional ingredients.

 

Preface

Chapter 1. Functional Foods—History and Concepts
S. Arai, D.A. Vattem and H. Kumagai
1.1. Background
1.2. Scientific Perspectives
1.3. Political States
1.4. Definitions and Limitations
1.5. Relevance of Functional Foods
1.6. Functional Food versus Pharmaceuticals
1.7. Impact on Health Care and Society
1.8. Functional Food: Sources and Classification
1.9. Acknowledgments
1.10. References

Chapter 2. Prebiotics and Probiotics: Concepts and Advances
A.L. Carvalho-Wells and D.M.A. Saulnier
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Roles of the Commensal Microbiota
2.3. The Gut Microbiota and Augmentation of Host Defense
2.4. Probiotics
2.5. Prebiotics
2.6. Future and Novel Applications
2.7. Acknowledgement
2.8. References

Chapter 3. Pleiotropic Effects of Bioactive Phytochemicals (Polyphenols and Terpenes)
Adeeb Shehzad, Salman Ul Islam, Ebtesam A Al-Suhaimi and Young Sup Lee
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Phenols
3.3. Terpenes
3.4. Conclusion
3.5. References

Chapter 4. Phytochemical Probiotic Synergies as Novel Functional Food Ingredients
E. Apostolidis and Y.I. Kwon
4.1. Introduction: Lactic Acid Bacteria and Phenolic Phytochemicals—Biological Role
4.2. Lactic Acid Bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Products
4.3. Phenolic Phytochemicals
4.4. Innovative Strategies to Improve Functionality of Lactic Acid Bacteria Fermented Products by Phenolic Phytochemical Synergies
4.5. Conclusions and Future Research
4.6. References

Chapter 5. Metabolomics in Nutritional Research: Applications and Future Perspectives
L. Brennan
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Samples for Metabolomics Analysis
5.3. Data Analysis
5.4. Examples of Use in Nutrition and Functional Food Research
5.5. Future Challenges
5.6. References

Chapter 6. Proteomics as a Tool to Test Efficacy of Functional Foods
Baukje De Roos
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Proteomics Applications in Nutrition Sciences
6.3. Analytical Platforms
6.4. Proteomics Approaches in Animal Intervention Studies
6.5. Proteomics Approaches in Human Intervention Studies
6.6. Proteomics and Biomarker Discovery
6.7. Conclusion
6.8. Acknowledgments
6.9. References

Chapter 7. Extraction and Purification of Bioactive Ingredients from Natural Products
G.K. Jayaprakasha and Bhimanagouda S. Patil
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Extraction of Bioactive Ingredients
7.3. Conventional Extraction Techniques
7.4. Recent Techniques
7.5. Purification Techniques
7.6. Current and Future Developments
7.7. Acknowledgments
7.8. References

Chapter 8. Identification of Bioactive Components from Natural Sources
G.K. Jayaprakasha and Bhimanagouda S. Patil
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Separation and Structure Determination
8.3. Functional Groups Identification
8.4. Identification of Chemical Components
8.5. Summary
8.6. Acknowledgment
8.7. References

Chapter 9. Insulin Signaling—A Potential Therapeutic Target of Dietary Bioactives
B.Y. Jamison, Y. Gomada, V. Maitin and D.A. Vattem
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Pharmacological Treatment Targets and Limitations
9.3. Natural Products
9.4. Lamiaceae Herbs as Modulators of Insulin Signaling
9.5. References

Chapter 10. Eukaryotic Stress Response Signaling Pathways as Mechanistic Targets for Functional Foods
Y. Gomada, B.Y. Jamison, V. Maitin and D.A. Vattem
10.1. Nrf2/skn-1 Signaling Pathway
10.2. HIF-1 Signaling Pathway
10.3. Apoptotic Signaling
10.4. Regulation of the Autophagy
10.5. Hypoxia Signaling Pathway and Unfolded Protein Response Signaling
10.6. HSP/UPR Link to Neurodegeneration
10.7. Regulation and Dysregulation of the MAPK Cascade
10.8. TGF-Beta Signaling Pathway
10.9. Neurodegenerative Pathologies and Stress Response Signaling
10.10. References

Chapter 11. Mechanism of Neuroprotection by Bioactive Compounds
R.C. Stavinoha, B.Y. Jamison, Y. Gomada, V. Maitin and D.A. Vattem
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Alzheimer’s Disease
11.3. Parkinson’s Disease
11.4. Pharmacological Agents
11.5. Natural Alternatives
11.6. References

Chapter 12. Modulation of Redox Homeostasis by Lamiaceae Herbs
R.C. Deleon, B.Y. Jamison, V.M. Maitin and D.A. Vattem
12.1. Oxidative Stress Mediated Pathogenesis of Disease
12.2. Antioxidant Defense Systems
12.3. Phytochemicals
12.4. Phytochemicals from Lamiaceae Herbs
12.5. References

Chapter 13. Lamiaceae Herbs: A Potential Ingredient to Functional Foods
M. Viuda-Martos, J.A. Perez-Alvarez and J. Fernandez-Lopez
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Bioactive Components
13.3. Functional Properties
13.4. Addition in Food
13.5. Conclusions
13.6. References

Chapter 14. Immunomodulatory Properties of Dietary Herbs and Spices
C.E. Lester, B.Y. Jamison, V.M. Maitin and D.A. Vattem
14.1. Historical and Current Use of Natural Products
14.2. Innate Immunity
14.3. Modulation of Innate Immunity by Natural Products
14.4. Immunomodulation by Root Spices
14.5. Immunomodulation by Nonroot Spices
14.6. Immunomodulation by Lamiaceae Herbs
14.7. References

Chapter 15. Therapeutic Potential of Green and Black Tea in the Prevention and Treatment of Various Diseases
A. Shehzad, M. Ul-Islam, N. Shah and Y. Sup Lee
15.1. Introduction
15.2. Chemistry and Stability
15.3. Mechanisms of Catechin Action
15.4. Medicinal and Therapeutic Potential of Tea
15.5. Clinical Implications
15.6. Future Prospects
15.7. References

Chapter 16. Cinnamomum—A Unique Spice with Unlimited Applications
M. Fawzi Mahomoodally and N. Ramalingum
16.1. Introduction
16.2. Traditional Uses
16.3. Modern Uses of Cinnamon
16.4. Conclusion
16.5. References

Chapter 17. Health Beneficial Effects of Turmeric (Curcuma longa) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
K. Srinivasan
17.1. Turmeric (Curcuma longa)
17.2. Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
17.3. Conclusions
17.4. References

Chapter 18. Allium: Garlic and Onion
T. Seki, T. Hosono, H. Kumagai and T. Ariga
18.1. Introduction
18.2. Biosynthesis of Garlic and Onion Flavor Precursors
18.3. References

Chapter 19. The Use of Citrus Flavonoids in the Management of Inflammatory Disorders
A. Shehzad, M. Ul-Islam, S. Khan and Y. Sup Lee
19.1. Introduction
19.2. Citrus Flavonoids
19.3. Mechanism Underlying the Biological Activity of Citrus Fruits
19.4. Therapeutic Role of Citrus Fruits
19.5. Future Implications
19.6. References

Chapter 20. Bioactive Components and Health Benefits in Grapes and Wines
J. Yang and D. Zhao
20.1. Introduction
20.2. Phytochemicals Commonly Present in Grapes and Wines
20.3. Beneficial Effects of Grapes and Wines
20.4. Conclusions
20.5. References

Chapter 21. Biological Functionality of Tropical Fruits
R.T.P Correia and M.I. Genovese
21.1. Introduction
21.2. Acerola
21.3. Cashew
21.4. Guava
21.5. Jambolan
21.6. Mango
21.7. Pineapple
21.8. Pitanga
21.9. Native Brazilian Fruits
21.10. References

Chapter 22. Bioactivity, Bioavailability, and Human Health Effects of Berries’ Bioactive Compounds
M.A. Vazquez-Cruz, S.N. Jimenez-Garcia, A.A. Feregrino-Perez and R.G. Guevara-Gonzalez
22.1. Bioactive Compounds Responsible for Functional Properties of Berries
22.2. Antimicrobial Activity of Berry Bioactive Compounds
22.3. Effect of Berries Consumption Against Chronic Diseases Development
22.4. Biotechnology Methods Enhancing Functional Compounds Content in Berries
22.5. Bioavailability Changes of Bioactive Compounds by Means of Different Processing Methods
22.6. Potential of Bioactive Compounds of Berries as Food Additives
22.7. Metabolomic Engineering of Bioactive Compounds
22.8. Future Research Focusing on Nutrigenomics and Nutrigenetics of Berries Compounds
22.9. Conclusions
22.10. References

Chapter 23. Soy Isoflavones and Health
Wendy L Hall
23.1. Introduction
23.2. Sources of Isoflavones in the Diet
23.3. Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion
23.4. Estrogen Receptors and Estrogenicity
23.5. Cardiovascular Disease
23.6. Breast Cancer
23.7. Prostate Cancer
23.8. Colorectal Cancer
23.9. Osteoporosis
23.10. Cognitive Function
23.11. Menopausal Symptoms
23.12. The Impact of Intestinal Phenotype and Genotype on the Functionality of Soy Isoflavones
23.13. Potential Risks of Isoflavones
23.14. Summary and Future Trends
23.15. Abbreviations
23.16. References

Chapter 24. Biological Functionality of Cruciferous Vegetables
M.E. Cartea, T. Sotelo, P. Velasco and P. Soengas
24.1. The Family Brassicaceae
24.2. Sources and Classification of Dietary Bioactive Ingredients
24.3. Biological Activities
24.4. Bioavailability
24.5. Genetic Modification of Bioactive Compounds Content
24.6. Development of Foods and Derived Products Enriched in Bioactive Compounds
24.7. References

Chapter 25. The Functional Effects of Dietary Fungi
Fumio Eguchi, Tomoko Seyama and Hiroaki Yoshimoto
25.1. Introduction
25.2. The Chemical Power of Dietary Fungi
25.3. What are the Active Constituents of Dietary Fungi that Promote Health?
25.4. Analysis of the Efficacy of Functional Dietary Fungi using Animal Models of Human Disease
25.5. Conclusions
25.6. References

Chapter 26. Mushrooms and Yeasts as Functional Foods
A.M. Witkowska, I. Mironczuk-Chodakowska, and M.E. Zujko
26.1. Introduction
26.2. Nutritional and Biological Qualities of Mushrooms
26.3. Health Benefits of Mushrooms
26.4. Mushrooms as Functional Foods
26.5. Yeasts as Functional Foods
26.6. References

Chapter 27. Emerging Sources for Marine Nutraceuticals
E. Apostolidis and C.M. Lee
27.1. Introduction: Global Perspective in Marine Nutraceuticals
27.2. Phospholipid-bound Omega-3 Fatty Acids
27.3. Health Benefits
27.4. Marine Macroalgae—Seaweeds
27.5. Health Benefits
27.6. Food Applications
27.7. Marine Protein Bioconversion—Marine Derived Peptides
27.8. Chitin and Derivatives
27.9. Applications and Regulatory Status
27.10. Conclusion
27.11. References

Chapter 28. Effects of Conjugated Linoleic Acids on Human Health
P. Yaqoob
28.1. Introduction
28.2. CLA and Body Composition
28.3. Incorporation of CLA into Tissue Lipids and CLA Metabolism in Humans
28.4. CLA and Blood Lipids
28.5. CLA and Insulin Sensitivity
28.6. CLA, Immune Function, and Inflammation
28.7. CLA and Breast Cancer
28.8. CLA in Functional Foods: Enhancing Animal Products
28.9. Concluding Remarks
28.10. References

Index

978-1-60595-101-0, ©2016, 836 pages, 6×9, Hardcover
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