Wastewater Odor Production & Control

An Operator’s Guide

Michael Gerardi and Jon Gerardi, Michael Gerardi & Associates, LLC
Illustrations by Brittany Lytle

978-1-60595-064-8, May 2019, 160 pages, 6×9, SC book

  • Ready-to-use operational procedures to solve specific odor problems
  • Proven biological, chemical, and physical methods for preventing and controlling odors in plants, sewer systems, tanks, and lagoons
  • Shows how daily plant variables like flow, water temperature, sludges, fats and grease affect odor generation and dictate strategies to combat it
  • Explains the field and lab tests needed to detect odor-causing situations
  • Detailed investigation of the chemical and bacterial processes that cause odors from ammonia, sulfides, methane, and many other compounds

A comprehensive guide to the causes and control of odors in wastewater plants, lagoons, and sewer systems, this book explains the chemical and microbiological conditions that lead to foul smells, potential health hazards for workers, and complaints from citizens. After reviewing the chemical compounds most implicated in water- and airborne odors, the authors show how specific bacteria generate these compounds in multiple, often anaerobic, treatment processes and how bacterial activity is tested both in the field and in the lab, which allows plant personnel to take steps to prevent odors before they become a problem. The authors show how variations in plant conditions such as diurnal flow, FOGs, and temperature can lead to unexpected odors, and they offer custom strategies for combatting odors in such situations. Special attention is given to ammonia, methane, and sulfide formation and the latter’s effects, such as corrosion and respiratory risks. Evidence-based methods to control odors are described for plants and collection systems of all sizes. Technologies include approaches based on biology, such as bioaugmentation and ones based on chemistry, e.g., sulfide precipitation, as well as instructions for when and where to clean equipment and cover exposed odor sources.


From the book’s Preface

“There is a large volume of literature that addresses wastewater odor production and control. However, the literature is scattered in engineering texts, equipment and design brochures, bulletins from chemical distributors, operation and maintenance (O&M) manuals, and web sites. (A source) that provides a condensed and comprehensive review of operator concerns related to odor production and control is needed. This review is presented in Wastewater Odor Production & Control: An Operator’s Guide.”

Preface
List of Abbreviations

Chapter 1. Introduction
 
Chapter 2. Odorous Compounds

  • Diversity of Odorous Compounds
  • Ammonia and Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Precursors of Odorous Compounds

Chapter 3. Substrates

  • Rise Times: Observing Odor Production
  • Substrates and Energy Yield

Chapter 4. Bacterial Diversity and Trophism

  • Gram Stain
  • Cell Shape
  • Response to Free Molecular Oxygen
  • Substrate Utilization
  • Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Chapter 5. Fermentative Bacteria
 
Chapter 6. Sulfur Bacteria

  • Sulfur-oxidizing Bacteria
  • Sulfur-reducing Bacteria

Chapter 7. Sulfide

  • Sulfide Formation
  • Sulfate Reduction
  • Sulfur Chemistry and Changes in Alkalinity
  • Hydrogen Sulfide
  • Hydrogen Sulfide Safety

Chapter 8. Hydrogen Sulfide Corrosion
 
Chapter 9. Monitoring

  • Monitoring Tests
  • Odor Perception and Measurement
  • Oxidation-reduction Potential

Chapter 10. Overview of Odor Control

  • Diurnal Flow
  • Oxygen Gradient
  • Continuous Odor Production

Chapter 11. Biological Odor Control Measures

  • Bioaugmentation
  • Biofilter
  • Maintaining an Anoxic Condition
  • Maintaining an Oxic Condition

Chapter 12. Chemical Odor Control Measures

  • Disinfection
  • Oxidation
  • pH Adjustment
  • Precipitation of Sulfide
  • Scrubbers

Chapter 13. Physical Odor Control Measures

  • Adsorption and Covers
  • Cleaning
  • Reduction in Sewer Turbulence

Appendix 1: Equations
Glossary
Bibliography
Index

978-1-60595-064-8, May 2019, 160 pages, 6×9, SC book

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USD Price: $124.50

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