Tharp and Young on Ice Cream

An Encyclopedic Guide to Ice Cream Science & Technology

Bruce Tharp, Ph.D. and L. Steven Young, Ph.D.

ISBN: 978-1-932078-68-8, ©2013, 410 pages, 7×10, Hardcover

  • A comprehensive practical reference to ice cream and other dairy and non-dairy desserts
  • Covers every stage from mix ingredients to processing, packaging, marketing, regulations and more
  • Provides calculations, formulas, troubleshooting tips, freezing data points and costs
  • Essential techniques for quality control and ideas for new products and market opportunities

This volume is at once an all-inclusive guide to the meaning of hundreds of technical terms and ideas needed for ice cream manufacturing, as well as a practical introduction to the ingredients, freezing methods, flavoring, and packaging of ice cream, sherbet, sorbet, gelato, frozen yogurts, novelties and many other kinds of frozen desserts. In dozens of longer entries and short essays, as well as with original quantitative tables and graphs, the authors explain the chemistry and controllable variables of all phases of ice cream production, e.g., dairy and non-dairy ingredients, crystallization, overrun, equipment, coloring, test and tasting protocols and much more. With its helpful system of cross-referencing, the book offers essential details on what must be done to create high-quality, successful products—with pointers on how to avoid dozens of specific defects that can occur during manufacturing, such as icy texture and sandiness. The authors also offer original information for extending product lines and creating new, e.g., health-oriented and hybrid products.

Besides providing a definitive introduction to the applied science of frozen desserts, the book explains key management concepts from cost-reduction strategies to yield improvement, marketing, and regulatory compliance in formulation and labeling.

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Definitions and Terms, A to Z

Appendix – The essays included in the Appendix are derived from columns written for Dairy Foods magazine beginning in 1999, with some updates for this book. Topics are drawn from technology presented and questions asked during “Tharp & Young on Ice Cream Technical Short Courses, Workshops and Clinics”, though the material here has been modified to eliminate the question/answer format of the original. Essays included in the Appendix are reprinted with the kind permission of Dairy Foods and BNP Publications.

  • Accelerated Shelf Life Testing
  • Alternative Sweeteners
  • Buttermilk
  • Calcium Nutrient Content Claims
  • Chocolate Ice Cream
  • Coloring Ice Cream
  • Cost Management
  • Downsizing of Ice Cream Packaging
  • Draw Temperature
  • Enzyme Effects in Ice Cream
  • Filtered Milks
  • Flavor Changes in Ice Cream during Storage
  • Functional Foods
  • Fruit Flavoring
  • Glycemic Index
  • “Good for You” Frozen Desserts—Formulation Considerations
  • Gumminess in Ice Cream
  • Hybrid Products
  • Ice Cream Inclusions
  • Ice Cream Lumpiness
  • Ice Cream Sweetness
  • Lactose Reduction
  • Line Cost Averaging
  • Low Carb Ice Cream
  • Low-Viscosity Polysaccharides to the Rescue
  • Mix Composition Effects on Flavor
  • Mix Processing Variables—Effect on Eating Quality
  • Non-Standard Frozen Desserts
  • No-Sugar-Added Ice Cream
  • Novelties I: Adding Inclusions
  • Novelties II: Prevention of Sogginess in Cones and Wafers
  • Nutmeat Flavored Ice Cream
  • Pasteurization, Homogenization: Effects on Ice Cream Mix Functionality
  • Pink Discoloration in Vanilla Ice Cream
  • Premium Light Ice Cream
  • Pro- and Prebiotic Mix Ingredients
  • Proposed Changes to US Frozen Dessert Standard of Identity
  • Sensory Evaluation—Quality Assurance/Product Development
  • Shelf Life of Ice Cream
  • Sherbet, Water Ices, Sorbets: Different, but not Forgotten
  • Sweetener Costs
  • Whey Replacement of Skim Milk Solids

Bruce Tharp and Steve Young both operate businesses devoted to providing technical know-how to the ice cream and dairy food industries throughout the world. For the past two decades they have collaborated in offering an international technical short course on ice cream. Selected data and troubleshooting pointers presented in the Encyclopedic Guide were developed from responses to thousands of queries from course attendees, as well as from the hands-on experience of the authors, who have been active in ice cream production since childhood.

ISBN: 978-1-932078-68-8, ©2013, 410 pages, 7×10, Hardcover

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