Structures in Fire 2016

Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference (SiF’16,) June 8-10, 2016, Princeton University

Edited bv: Maria E. Moreyra Garlock, Princeton University and Venkatesh K.R. Kodur, Michigan State University

ISBN: 978-1-60595-320-5, June 2016, 1145 pages, 6×9, soft cover

  • How concrete, steel, composites, FRP and timber construction behaves in fire
  • Covers columns, slabs, walls, beams, floors, bolts in buildings, bridges, tunnels and more
  • Test results, numerical modeling, structural health and fire protection

This volume offers original research on the fire behavior of building components made from concrete, steel, composites, glasses and timber. Its 135 chapters, written by researchers from 26 nations, contain key technical information on how fire affects widely used construction materials in multiple configurations. Attention is placed on new testing and modeling approaches, as well as on structural health monitoring and strategies for protection. The findings in this book will be of benefit to design and fire safety engineers.


Scientific Committee

Organizing Committee

Steering Committee





  • Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Reinforced Concrete Slabs with Low Cover in Fire

Hamzeh Hajiloo, Mark F. Green, Noureddine Bénichou and Mohamed Sultan

  • The Effect of LITS on Punching Shear in Fire

Rwayda Al Hamd, Martin Gillie, Giacomo Torelli, Holly Smith, Tim Stratford and Yong Wang

  • Concrete Edge Failure of Headed Stud Anchors under Fire and Post-Fire Conditions: Verification of a 3D FE Code

Kaipei Tian, Joško Ožbolt and Goran Periškic

  • Rational Design Approach for Predicting Fire Resistance of Hollowcore Slabs

Anuj M. Shakya and Venkatesh K. R. Kodur

  • Shear and Torsion in R/C Structural Members in Fire

Patrick Bamonte, Pietro Gambarova, Nataša Kalaba and Sergio Tattoni

  • Fire Behavior of Two-Way Post-Tensioned Concrete Slabs Provided with Bonded Tendons: An Experimental Study

Li Zhang, Ya Wei, Francis Tat Kwong Au and Jing Li

  • Insights into the Complexity of Structural Fire Response from Repeated Heating Tests on Post-Tensioned Concrete

John Gales and Luke Bisby

  • Quantifying the Effect of Temperature Induced Bond Degradation on Fire Resistance of RC Beams

Ankit Agrawal and Venkatesh Kodur

  • Modelling of Bond-slip between Prestressed Strands and Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Jamal Khalaf and Zhaohui Huang

  • Performance Comparison between Rectangular and Circular Cross-section Columns in Fire Situation, Using Tabulated Methods

Maria Alzira Ramalho and Miguel Gonçalves

  • Fire Resistance of Reinforced Concrete Columns Subjected to Standard Fire—Comparison of an Advanced and a Simplified Method

Marcus Achenbach, Thomas Gernay and Guido Morgenthal

  • Buckling Strength of Slender Reinforced HSC and VHSC Columns in Fire

Masaki Kato, Shintaro Michikoshi, Shigeaki Baba and Kazumasa Imai

  • Effects of Localised or Non-Uniform Heating on Reinforced Concrete Columns

Jamie Maclean, Vadims Goremikins, Luke Bisby and Tim Stratford

  • Modelling the Thermal and Structural Performance of a Concrete Column Exposed to a Travelling Fire—Tisova Fire Test

David Rush, David Lange, Jamie Maclean and Egle Rackauskaite

  • An Analytical Approach for Predicting the Deformed Configuration of High Rise Concrete Walls Subjected to Fire Loading Conditions

Mingguan Yang, Samir Mehal, Duc Toan Pham, Patrick De Buhan and Jean-Vivien Heck

  • A Thermo Mechanical Experimental Investigation on 3 Loaded Concrete Walls Exposed to ISO 834-1 Fire

MD Jihad Miah, Nicolas Pinoteau and Pierre Pimienta

  • On the Effect of Design Parameters and Boundary Conditions on the Post-Earthquake Fire Performance of RC Structural Walls

Anna C. Birely and Shuna Ni




  • Effects of Polypropylene and Steel Fibers on Permeability of Ultra-high Performance Concrete at Hot State
  1. Li and K. H. Tan
  • Numerical Study on Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Columns Subjected to Fire

Venkatesh Kodur, Pratik Bhatt and Vasant Matsagar

  • Experimental Study of Ultra-high Performance Fiber Reinforced Concrete under ISO 834 Fire

Charles Kahanji, Faris Ali and Ali Nadjai

  • Fire Tests on Fiber Sheet Strengthened RC Beams using Geopolymers as Adhesive Agent

Hai Yan Zhang, Shu Liang Qi, Venkatesh Kodur and Hao Ran LV

  • Elevated Temperature Response of RC Beams Strengthened with NSM FRP Bars Bonded with Cementitious Grout

Iolanda Del Prete, Antonio Bilotta, Luke Bisby and Emidio Nigro

  • Flexural Capacity of NSM FRP Strengthened RC Beams at Elevated Temperature

Iolanda Del Prete, Antonio Bilotta, Daniele Di Fiore and Emidio Nigro

  • Fire Testing of Insulated RC Beams Strengthened with Near Surface Mounted FRP Reinforcement

Alessandro Proia, Stijn Matthys, Luc Taerwe and Aniello Palmieri




  • Thermal Boundary Conditions When Fire Testing Concrete

Cristian Maluk, Angus Law and Jose Luis Torero

  • Predictive Testing for Heat Induced Spalling of Concrete Tunnels—The Influence of Mechanical Loading

Ieuan Rickard, Luke Bisby, Susan Deeny and Cristian Maluk

  • Explosive Concrete Spalling During Large-Scale Fire Resistance Test

Cristian Maluk, Luke Bisby and Giovanni Pietro Terrasi

  • Effect of Biaxial Mechanical Loading and Cement Type on the Fire Spalling Behaviour of Concrete

MD Jihad Miah, Francesco Lo Monte, Pierre Pimienta and Roberto Felicetti

  • Effects of Polypropylene Fibers on Preventing Concrete Spalling In Fire

Fangxia Lu and Mario Fontana

  • Reuse of Waste Tyre Fibres in Concrete—Fire-Spalling

Shun Hey Dawn Ho, Shan-Shan Huang, Harris Angelakopoulos, Kypros Pilakoutas and Ian Burgess

  • Constitutive Models of Concrete at Elevated Temperatures: Studying the Effect of Temperature Gradients

Quang Xuan Le, Vinh The Ngoc Dao, Cristian Maluk, Luke Bisby and José Luis Torero

  • Post-cooling Stress-strain Model of Traditional and High-Strength Concrete

Emmanuel Annerel, Tom Van Den Steen and Luc Taerwe

  • Experimental Study on Mechanical Properties of Ultra-high Strength Concrete at Elevated Temperatures

Mingxiang Xiong, J. Y. Richard Liew and Yong Du

  • Assessing Tensile Properties of Fire-Damaged Engineered Cementitious Composites with Hybrid Fibres

Jin-Cheng Liu and K. H. Tan

  • Experimental Validation of the Damage-Plasticity Modeling Concept for Normal Strength Concrete in Fire

Martin Neuenschwander, Claudio Scandella, Markus Knobloch and Mario Fontana

  • Post-Fire Residual Mechanical Properties of High Strength Concrete (HSC) Made with Basalt Aggregate

Marcela Barros De Souza Sollero and Armando Lopes Moreno Jr.

  • Thermal Properties of Green High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Cementitious Composites Subjected to High Temperature

Xiuling Li, Huining Zhang, Genda Chen and Yi Bao

  • Influence of Water on Load Induced Thermal Strain of Concrete

Heisuke Yamashita, Toru Yoshida and Takeo Hirashima

  • Elevated Temperature Behavior of Impact-Induced Partially Damaged Concrete

Mahsa Mirmomeni, Amin Heidarpour, Xiao-Ling Zhao and Jeffrey A. Packer




  • Beam-columns with Thin Wall Cross-sections in Case of Fire

Carlos Couto, Arnaud Sanzel, Paulo Vila Real, Nuno Lopes and Bin Zhao

  • Temperature Assessment of a Vertical Steel Member Subjected to Localized Fire: Experimental Tests

Francois Hanus, Olivier Vassart, Nicola Tondini, Ali Nadjai and Jean-Marc Franssen

  • Component-Based Element of Beam Local Buckling Adjacent to Connections in Fire

Guan Quan, Shan-Shan Huang and Ian Burgess

  • Lateral-torsional Buckling of Beams with Corrugated Webs Subjected to Fire

Goncalo Correia Lopes, Carlos Couto, Paulo Vila Real and Nuno Lopes

  • Fire-induced Progressive Collapse of 3D Steel Frames with Concrete Floors

Jian Jiang and Guo-Qiang Li

  • Evaluating Post-fire Mechanical Behavior of Ultra-high Strength (Grade1200) Steel Tubes

Fatemeh Azhari, Amin Heidarpour, Xiao-Ling Zhao and Christopher R. Hutchinson

  • Effect of Initial Geometric Imperfection on the Performance of Single-Layer Reticulated Shells at Elevated Temperatures

Ye-Hua Wang, Zu-Yan Shen and Yuan-Qi Li

  • The Performance of Structural Steel Beams Subject to a Localized Fire

Lisa Choe, Selvarajah Ramesh, Chao Zhang and John Gross

  • 3D FEA of Load-bearing Cold-formed Steel Wall Systems with Web-perforated Studs Subjected to Standard Fire

Shijun Yang and Lei Xu

  • Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Columns at Both Ambient Temperature and Simulated Fire Conditions

Helder D. Craveiro, João Paulo C. Rodrigues and Luis M. Laim

  • Modeling Fire Induced Burn through Rupture of Marine Grade Aluminum Panels

Christian Rippe, Brian Lattimer and Scott Case

  • Buckling Analysis of Rack Uprights Exposed to Localized Fires

Shubin He, Chong Ren, Xianzhong Zhao and Chunxiang Li




  • Creep Behavior of Flush Endplate Connections at Elevated Temperatures Due to Fire

Ahmad H. El Ghor, Elie G. Hantouche, Mohammed Ali Morovat and Michael D. Engelhardt

  • Experimental and Numerical Study on High Strength Steel Endplate Connections after Fire

Xuhong Qiang, Xu Jiang, Frans S. K. Bijlaard and Henk Kolstein

  • Experimental Study of High-Strength Bolts under Combined Tension and Shear During and After Fire

Anne K. Kawohl and Jorg Lange

  • Post-Fire Mechanical Properties of High Strength Grade 8.8 Steel Bolts

Mahmood Yahyai, Abbas Rezaeian, Venkatesh Kodur, Mohammad Reza Eslami and Alireza Poormohamadi

  • Analytical Study on Critical Temperature of Bolted Splice Connections

Robert Dwiputra, Shuhei Ando and Takeo Hirashima

  • Fire Performance of Hybrid Stainless-carbon Steel Composite Beam-column Joints with Blind-bolted Connections

Tian-Yi Song, Zhong Tao, Ali Razzazzadeh and Lin-Hai Han

  • The Effects of Load Intensity and Restraint on the Fire Resistance of Steel and Composite Beams

Farid Alfawakhiri, Charles J. Carter, Robert M. Berhinig, Patrick Zeeveld, Frederick E. Hervey and Luke C. Woods

  • Numerical Modeling of Heat Transfer in Steel-concrete Composite Slabs

Jian Jiang, Joseph A. Main, Jonathan M. Weigand and Fahim Sadek

  • Evaluation of Composite Steel-Concrete Slab Performance Subjected to Travelling Fire: A Case Study

Rui R. Sun and Bernice V. Y. Wong

  • Development and Modification of Yield Line Patterns in Thin Slabs Subjected to Tensile Membrane Action

Fabien Quichaud, Ian Burgess and Shan-Shan Huang

  • Advanced Analysis of the Membrane Action of Composite Slabs under Natural Fire Scenarios: A Case Study of the New JTI Headquarters

Lorenzo Lelli and Jonas Loutan




  • Stability Behavior of Concrete-Filled Steel Tube Columns in Real Fire Conditions

Shashank Taddhanpally and Anil Agarwal

  • Development of a Calculation Method for the Fire Design of Concrete-Filled Steel Tubular Columns

Ana Espinos, Manuel L. Romero, Vicente Albero, Antonio Hospitaler, Gisele Bihina and Christophe Renaud

  • Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Composite Behavior of Concrete-Filled Tubular Columns with Massive Steel Core at High Temperatures

Peter Schaumann and Inka Kleiboemer

  • Numerical Analysis of the Fire Performance of Innovative Steel-Concrete Composite Columns

Ana Espinos, Manuel L. Romero and Dennis Lam

  • Experimental Investigation on Axially and Rotationally Restrained Circular and Elliptical Concrete-Filled Hollow Columns Subjected to Fire

Joao Paulo C. Rodrigues and Luis Laim

  • Flexural Behaviours of Reinforced Concrete Columns Confined by Circular Steel Tubes after Fire Exposure

Faqi Liu, Hua Yang and Sumei Zhang

  • Experimental Study on Bond-slip between Shaped Steel and Concrete under High Temperature

Yuzhuo Wang, Dejian Xu, Chunyang Liu and Chuanguo Fu




  • S500M and Grade 70 Steel Grades—Material Properties Assessed through Full Scale Tests

Francois Hanus, Olivier Vassart, Nicolas Caillet and Jean-Marc Franssen

  • Development of True Stress-Strain Curves of Structural Steel for Fracture Simulations

Wenyu Cai and Michael D. Engelhardt

  • Constitutive Modelling of Ductile Metals at High Temperature

Pawel Woelke, Ryan Anderson, Badri Hiriyur and Najib Abboud

  • Constitutive Modeling for Fire Engineering Purposes—The Challenge of Modeling Creep in an Appropriate Way

Manfred Korzen

  • High-temperature Material Constitutive Models for Structural-Fire Analysis

Chao Zhang, Lisa Choe and John Gross

  • Behaviour of High Strength Steel under Fire Conditions

Dorothy A. Winful, Katherine A. Cashell, Adriene M. Barnes and Richard J. Pargeter




  • Development of Wood Structural Elements for Fire Resistant Buildings

Hirokazu Ohashi, Shinya Igarashi and Tsutomu Nagaoka

  • Changing Failure Modes of Cross-Laminated Timber

Richard Emberley, Alexander Nicolaidis, Dilum Fernando and Jose L. Torero

  • External and Internal Factors Influencing the Charring of Timber—An Experimental Study with Respect to Natural Fires and Moisture Conditions

Norman Werther

  • Parameters Influencing the Behavior of Timber Frame Assemblies Exposed to Fire, Development of New Design Criteria for Insulation Materials

Mattia Tiso and Alar Just

  • Deflection Behavior and Load-Bearing-Period of Structural Glued Laminated Timber Beams in Fire Including Cooling Phase

Yusuke Katakura, Hitoshi Kinjo, Takeo Hirashima, Shuitsu Yusa and Kiyoshi Saito

  • Simulation of Charring Depth of Wooden-based Products when Exposed to Non-standardized Fire Curves

Jean-Christophe Mindeguia, Guillaume Cueff, Virginie Drean and Gildas Auguin

  • Sectional Analysis of Cross-Laminated Timber as a Design for Fire Methodology

Alastair Bartlett, Rory Hadden, Luke Bisby and Barbara Lane

  • Timber under Real Fire Conditions – the Influence of Oxygen Content and Gas Velocity on the Charring Behavior

Joachim Schmid, Daniel Brandon, Alessandro Santomaso, Ulf Wickstrom and Andrea Frangi

  • Full-scale Fire Test of a Laterally Loaded Light Timber-framed Compartment

Daniel Jessop, Anthony Abu, Colleen Wade, Michael Spearpoint, Hans Gerlich and Andy Buchanan

  • A Framework for Finite Element Modelling of Timber Connections in Fire

Pedro Palma and Andrea Frangi




  • Comparative Behavior of Fire-Exposed Composite Girders Subjected to Flexural and Shear Loading
  1. Z. Naser and V. K. R. Kodur
  • Factors Governing Response of Steel Bridge Girders under Fire Conditions

Esam M. Aziz and Venkatesh K. Kodur

  • Postbuckling Shear Strength at Elevated Temperatures Using a Compression-based Approach

Jonathan A. Glassman and Maria E. Moreyra Garlock

  • Analysis of the Factors that Influence the Maximum Adiabatic Temperatures in I-girder Bridges

Guillem Peris-Sayol, Ignacio Paya-Zaforteza, Sebastia Balasch-Parisi and Jose Alos-Moya

  • Resilient Bridge Design Framework to Extreme Fire Loading

Kevin Mueller, Shalva Marjanishvili and Spencer Quiel

  • Assessing the Fires on the Deck of Cable Stayed Bridges

Panagiotis Kotsovinos, Gary Walker, Graeme Flint and Barbara Lane

  • New Design Fires for Performance Based Engineering of Highway Bridges

Jiayu Hu, Ricky Carvel, Abdel Sanad and Asif Usmani

  • Performance-Based Prioritization of Fire Mitigation for Highway Bridges

Spencer Quiel, Zheda Zhu, Kevin Mueller, Aerik Carlton and Shalva Marjanishvili

  • Fire Test of FRP Members Applied to Railway Bridge

Kamila Cabova, Pavel Ryjacek, Ondrej Hrasky, Ludvik Kolpasky, Jan Vujtech and Frantisek Wald

  • Behavior of Structural Tunnel Element Exposed to Fire and Mechanical Loading

Matthias Siemon and Jochen Zehfuß




  • Temperature and Strain Measurements with Fiber Optic Sensors for Steel Beams Subjected to Fire

Yi Bao, Yizheng Chen, Matthew S. Hoehler, Christopher M. Smith, Matthew Bundy and Genda Chen

  • Thermographic Digital Image Correlation (TDIC) Measurements of Mechanically-Loaded Structures

Jonathan L. Hodges, Christian Rippe, Scott W. Case and Brian Y. Lattimer

  • Consolidated Fire Analysis—Coupled Thermo-mechanical Modelling for Global Structural Fire Analysis

Patrick Schulthess, Martin Neuenschwander, Markus Knobloch and Mario Fontana

  • A Static Partitioned Solver for Hybrid Fire Testing

Nicola Tondini, Giuseppe Abbiati, Luca Possidente and Bozidar Stojadinovic

  • Stability in Hybrid Fire Testing

Ana Sauca, Thomas Gernay, Fabienne Robert, Nicola Tondini and Jean Marc Franssen

  • Assessment of Concrete Exposed to Elevated Temperatures Using Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Diffraction

Bruno Fernandes, Augusto Masiero Gil, Fabricio Longhi Bolina, Eduardo Estevam Camargo Rodrigues and Bernardo Fonseca Tutikian

  • Pulse-Echo Monitoring of Concrete Damage and Spalling During Fire

Roberto Felicetti and Francesco Lo Monte




  • Towards a Standard Measure of the Ability of a Structure to Resist a Natural Fire

Thomas Gernay and Jean-Marc Franssen

  • Application of Concepts of Fire Resistance of Load Bearing Structural Glass

Johan Sjostrom, David Lange, Michael Debuyser, Daniel Honfi, Delphine Sonck and Jan Belis

  • Performance-Based Fire Engineering: Sensitivity Analysis on Design Parameters

Reza Imani, Pierre Ghisbain and Ali Ashrafi

  • Shear Breaking of Columns Subjected to Localized Fire

Olivier Burnier

  • Conversion of Visual Post Fire Measurements into Fire Severity with the Aid of Thermo-Plastic Analysis for Retrofitting

Tom Molkens, Thomas Gernay and Ruben Van Coile

  • Engineering an Icon or the Probabilistic-based Structural Fire Engineering of the Battersea Power Station

Florian M. Block and Tad-Song Kho

  • Fire Fragility Functions for Community Resilience Assessment

Negar Elhami Khorasani, Thomas Gernay and Maria Garlock

  • Critical Parameters in Deriving Fire Fragility Functions for Steel Gravity Frames

Thomas Gernay, Negar Elhami Khorasani and Maria Garlock

  • Applying Uncertainty Quantification in Modelling of a Steel Beam Exposed to Fire

Johan Anderson, David Lange and Lars Bostrom

  • Intensity Measures for Probabilistic Structural Fire Engineering

Peter Moss, Anthony Abu and Rajesh Dhakal

  • A Probabilistic Study on Concrete Columns Exposed to Biaxial Bending at Elevated Temperatures

Lijie Wang, Ruben Van Coile, Robby Caspeele and Luc Taerwe

  • Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Walls Subjected to Standard Fire Using Advanced and Simplified Methods

Marcus Achenbach and Guido Morgenthal




  • Implementation of a New Design Travelling Fire Model for Global Structural Analysis

Xu Dai, Liming Jiang, Jamie Maclean, Stephen Welch and Asif Usmani

  • Global Structural Behavior of Steel-Concrete Composite Floor Systems under Traveling Fires

Jason Martinez and Ann E. Jeffers

  • Structural Response of a Generic Steel Frame Exposed to Travelling Fires

Egle Rackauskaite, Panagiotis Kotsovinos, Ann Jeffers and Guillermo Rein

  • Numerical Calibration of Hydrocarbon Localized Fire Tests by Means of Fire Dynamics Simulator

Nicola Tondini, Christophe Thauvoye, Francois Hanus and Bin Zhao

  • FDS-FEM Simulation Method and Its Application to Model Localized Fire Tests on Steel Members

Chao Zhang

  • Results of a Post Test Round Robin of the Calculated Response of a Loaded Steel Beam to a Furnace Test

David Lange and Lars Boström

  • A Unified Rheological Model for Analysis of Steel Behavior at High Temperature

Neno Toric, Ian W. Burgess, Josip Brnic, Ivica Boko, Goran Turkalj, Marko Canadija, Alen Harapin, Vladimir Divic and Ivana Uzelac

  • Scaling of Reaction Forces in a Displacement Controlled Steel Beam, Transitioning From Elastic to Plastic Behaviour

Kim Olsson, David Lange and Lars Bostrom

  • Factors Governing the Fire Response of Reactive Powder Concrete Simply-Supported Beams

Xiaomeng Hou, Pengfei Ren, Wenzhong Zheng, Qin Rong and Yao Zhan

  • Numerical Analyses for Precast RC Structures at Fire Condition in Underground Space
  1. X. Liu and K. H. Tan
  • Numerical Modelling of Load-Induced-Thermal-Strain of Prestressed Concrete Pressure Vessels

Giacomo Torelli, Martin Gillie, Partha Mandal and Van-Xuan Tran

  • Structural Behavior under Localized Fire Action—Modelled Using an Integrated Computational Tool

Liming Jiang, Suwen Chen and Asif Usmani

  • Optimal Tuning of Thermomechanical Hybrid Simulation Parameters

Catherine A. Whyte, Kevin R. Mackie, Giuseppe Abbiati and Bozidar Stojadinovic




  • Experimental Study of the Behavior of Steel Structures Protected by Different Intumescent Coatings and Exposed to Various Fire Scenarios

Andrea Lucherini, Razvan-Ioan Costa, Luisa Giuliani and Grunde Jomaas

  • An Improved Method for Thermal Analysis of Intumescent Coatings

Anita Treven, Tomaž Hozjan and Miran Saje

  • Experimental Tests on Intumescent Coating for Protecting Steel Structures

Donatella De Silva, Antonio Bilotta and Emidio Nigro

  • An Experimental Study of the Damage Modes of Fireproof Coatings Under Complex Loads
  1. W. Chen, Y. J. Wang, l. M. Jiang and A. S. Usmani
  • Fire Tests of Reactive Fire Protection Systems Applied to Steel Tension Members with Solid Circular Section

Dustin Häßler and Sascha Hothan

  • Numerical Investigation of Plasterboard Partitions Subjected to Fire: Confrontation between Numerical and Experimental Results7

Guillaume Cueff and Gildas Auguin

  • Material Characterisation and Numerical Modelling of Gypsum Plasterboards in Fire

Maneesha Tharindi Dodangoda, Mahen Mahendran, Keerthan Poologanathan and Ray L. Frost

  • Performance of Gypsum-Protected CLT and NLT in Natural and Standard Fires

Marc Janssens, Jason Huczek and Natasha Albracht

  • Study on Residual Flexural Performance of Precast Prestressed Hollow Core Slabs After Exposure to Fire

Lingzhu Chen, Qingfeng Xu, Xiangmin Li, Chongqing Han, Zhenlong Chen and Xi Chen


Author Index

ISBN: 978-1-60595-320-5, June 2016, 1145 pages, 6×9, soft cover

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USD Price: $269.00


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