Response of Structures under Extreme Loading (PROTECT 2015)

Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Performance, Protection & Strengthening of Structures Under Extreme Loading (PROTECT 2015)

Edited by: Venkatesh K.R. Kodur, Michigan State University, USA and Nemkumar Banthia, University of British Columbia, Canada

ISBN: 978-1-60595-227-7


  • Original research on performance of materials under a wide variety of blasts, impacts, severe loading and fire
  • Critical information for protecting buildings and civil infrastructure against human attack, deterioration and natural disasters
  • Test and design data for new types of concrete, steel and FRP materials


This technical book is devoted to the empirical and theoretical analysis of how structures and the materials constituting them perform under the extreme conditions of explosions, fire, and impact. Each of the 119 fully refereed presentations is published here for the first time and was selected because of its original contribution to the science and engineering of how materials, bridges, buildings, tunnels and their components, such as beams and pre-stressed parts, respond to potentially destructive forces. Emphasis is placed on translating empirical data to design recommendations for strengthening structures, including strategies for fire and earthquake protection as well as blast mitigation. Technical details are provided on the development and behavior of new resistant materials, including reinforcements, especially for concrete, steel and their composites.






  • Behaviour of Concrete under Biaxial Dynamic Loading

Matthias Quast and Manfred Curbach

  • Behaviour of High-strength and Normal-strength Strain-hardening Cement-based Composites (SHCC) Subjected to Impact Loading

Iurie Curosuand and Viktor Mechtcherine

  • Effect of Crumb Rubber on Pull Out Response of FRP Rebar in Fiber-reinforced Lightweight Concrete

Rupak Mutsuddy, Vivek Bindiganavile and J.J. Roger Cheng

  • A Study on Shock Absorbing Properties of Rubber Pieces for Bridge Seismic Restrainers

Hiroki Tamai, Yoichi Yuki, Yoshimi Sonoda and Toshihiro Kasugai

  • Evaluation of Rheological Models within Lattice-based Simulations of Concrete under Dynamic Loading

Young Kwang Hwang, Kunhwi Kim, John E. Bolander and Yun Mook Lim

  • On the Mechanical Characterization of Materials for Protection of Infrastructure Elements from the Effects of IEDs and Blast Charges

Ezio Cadoni

  • Low, Medium and High Strain Rate Characteristics of Cenosphere Aluminum Syntactic Foam for Blast and Impact Applications

Manmohan Dass Goel, Vasant Matsagar, Venkitanarayanan Parameswaran and Dehi Pada Mondal

  • Potential Use of Drilling Resistance Test as a Non-destructive Testing Tool in Failure Forensics

K.S. Babu Narayan, Subhash C. Yaragal and Kishor Kulkarni

  • Characteristics of Recycled Asphalt Pavement Self-consolidating Concrete

Ahmed Abdel-Mohti, Hui Shen, Yasser Khodair and Paul Gearhart

  • Self-Consolidating Concrete Prepared With Recycled Concrete Aggregate and Recycled Asphalt Pavement

Yasser Khodair, Luqman and Ahmed Abdel-Mohti

  • Numerical Predictions of Laboratory Tsunami Waves

Yuri S. Karinski, Vladimir R. Feldgun, Dina Tsemakh and David Z. Yankelevsky

  • High Strain Rate Response of Rocks under Dynamic Loading Using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar

Sunita Mishra, Vedant Parashar, Tanusree Chakraborty, Vasant Matsagar, Pradeep Chandel,

Vikas Mangla and Manjit Singh

  • Material Characteristics of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) Bars at High Temperature

Hamzeh Hajiloo, John Gales, Martin Noel and Mark Green

  • Effect of Temperature on Porosity, PSD and Hence, Performance of Concrete

Bishwajit Bhattacharjee

  • Effect of Temperature on Porosity, PSD and Hence, Performance of Concrete

Suvir Singh, S.K. Bhattacharyya and Krita Nandjha

  • Performance of Polypropylene Concrete Subjected To Heating and Different Cooling Regimes

Subhash C. Yaragal and S. Ramanjaneyulu

  • Mathematical Model of Compressive and Flexural Strength of Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperature Using Dimensional Analysis—Buckingham’s Pi Theorem

Sunil Kute, Rushabh Karnavat and Pramod Sathe

  • Sugarcane Bagasse Ash as a Pozzolanic Admixture in Concrete for Resistance to Sustained Elevated Temperatures

Parisa Setayesh Gar, Narayana Suresh and Vivek Bindiganavile

  • Effect of Elevated Temperatures on the Performance of Concrete Using Manufactured Sand

Subhash Yaragal, Kiran S. Dhamannavar and B.M. Sunil

  • Assessment of Residual Strength in Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete at Various Elevated Temperature

Narayana Suresh, Mahesh Prabhu and Vivek Bindiganavile

  • Behaviour of Binary, Ternary and Tertiary Blended Concrete Exposed To High Temperature and Moisture by Steam

Deepa Sinha, Vikrant Srivastava and Karan Pandey

  • Influence of Polypropylene and Steel Fibers in Concretes Subjected to High Temperature

Nonna Yermak, Prosper Pliya, Anne-Lise Beaucour, Albert Noumowe and Alain Simon

  • Concrete’s Characteristic Temperature under Combined Heating and Loading

Elin Jensen

  • Fire Performance of Concrete: Effect of Temperature Gradients?

Quang X. Le, Vinh T. N. Dao and José L. Torero

  • To Stress-Strain Behaviour of Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete at Elevated Temperature

Vadims Goremikins, Lukas Blesak and František Wald

  • High Temperature Properties of Calcium Aluminate Cement Concrete

Wasim Khaliq and Hammad Anis Khan

  • Mechanical Properties of Geopolymer Mortar after Exposure to Elevated Temperatures

Hai Yan Zhang, Venkatesh Kodur and Liang Cao

  • Influence of the Cooling Process and Load Level on the Residual Mechanical Properties of Ordinary Concretes after Fire

Cristina Calmeiro Dos Santos and João Paulo C. Rodrigues

  • Protection Methods against the Explosive Spalling of Concrete

Fangxia Lu, Eike Klingsch and Mario Fontana

  • Mechanical Properties of High Strength Q460 Structural Steel after Being Exposed to Fire

Weiyong Wang, Tianzi Liu and Venkatesh Kodur

  • Modeling Fracture of Steel at Elevated Temperature

Wenyu Cai and Michael D. Engelhardt

  • High Strain Rate Behaviour in Tension of Different Reinforcing Steels

Daniele Forni and Ezio Cadoni

  • Composite Corrosion Protection System in Rehabilitation of Steel Structures in Corrosive Environment—A Case Study

Ishita Manjrekar, Raghuvir Salkar, Sourabh Manjrekar and Abhishek Salkar




  • Estimation of Equivalent Diagonal Strut and Shear Strength of URM Wall Infilled RC Frame

Ho Choi

  • Evaluation of Dynamic Shear Resistance of RC Beams under Rapid Loadings Based on Modified Field Compression Theory

Amornthep Somraj and Kazunori Fujikake

  • The Need for Enhanced Resiliency in Building Design and Construction

Stephen S. Szoke

  • Evaluating the Robustness of Precast Concrete Framing Enhancements for Progressive Collapse Resistance

Corey Fallon, Spencer Quiel and Clay Naito

  • Validation of Dynamic Increase Factors in Structural Design Codes

Yu Yong Jae and Cho Jae Yeol

  • Robustness of Floor Systems Due to Post-Drilled Holes

Tom Molkens

  • Cyclic Performance of Shape Memory Alloy Reinforced Concrete Walls

Emad A. Abraik and Maged A. Youssef

  • Retrofitting of Ancient Masonry: Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulations

Amedeo Gregori, Dante Galeota, Franco Di Fabio, Matteo Totani and Pietro Crespi

  • Strengthening and Repair of Las Vegas Distribution Center after a Severe Fire

Luis Gonzalo Mejía

  • FRP Shear Strengthening of Thin-Walled Plate Girder Web Panels Subjected to Cyclic Loading

Zaid Al-Azzawi, Tim Stratford, Michael Rotter and Luke Bisby

  • Strengthening and Repair of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Concrete Jackets

Monir Ajan Alhadid and Maged A. Youssef

  • External Strengthening of Shear Deficient Reinforced Concrete Beams with Flexural CFRP Laminates

Rami A. Hawileh, Waleed Nawaz, Jamal A. Abdalla and Elias. I. Saqan

  • Introduction to Shape Memory Alloys for Concrete Confinement Applications

Khaled Abdelrahman and Raafat El-Hacha

  • Thermo-Mechanical Training of Iron-Based Shape Memory Alloys Used to Strengthen RC Beams

Hothifa Rojob and Raafat El-Hacha

  • Evaluation of Member Contributions in Concrete Connections Using the Digital Image Correlation Technique

Fadi Oudah and Raafat El-Hacha

  • Effect of Soil Type on Pile-Soil Interaction

Ahmed Abdel-Mohti and Yasser Khodair

  • Assessment of Impulse and Pressure Wave Distribution on Realistic City Models

Deniz Cagri Tanyildiz and Martin Mensinger

  • A Parametric Study of Live Load Distribution Factors for Steel Girder Integral Abutment Bridge: Camera-Ready Guidelines

Scott A. Brendler and Yasser A. Khodair

  • High Strength Concrete (HSC): Concrete Solution for Emerging High Rise Concrete Structures

Deepa A. Sinha and Yatin Joshi

  • Numerical Simulation of Wind-Induced Noise Using Wind Turbulence Information

Hoang Nam

  • A Fundamental Study on the Ultimate Pull-Out Strength of an Anchor Bolt in Concrete Structures Using SPH

Yoshimi Sonoda




  • Finite Element Simulation of Newly Developed Beam-Column Connection System Subjected to Seismic Loading

Fadi Oudah and Raafat El-Hacha

  • Seismic Performance Evaluation and Retrofit of an R/C Frame with Brittle Beam-Column Joint Damaged By the 2013 Bohol, Philippines Earthquake

Yasushi Sanada, Yuebing Li and Koki Maekawa

  • Variation of Maximum Inter-Storey Drift for Steel Moment Resisting Frames Considering the Horizontal and Vertical Seismic Components

Papia Sultana and Maged A. Youssef

  • Numerical Modeling of the Shaking Table Tests of a Bridge Column

Serhan Guner

  • Seismic Performance of Frame-Shear Wall Structure with Innovative Replaceable Coupling Beams

Cong Chen and Xilin Lu

  • Numerical Modelling and Seismic Retrofit Design for Historical Vazir House

Muhammad Masood Rafi, Adnan Rais Ahmed, Sarosh Hashmat Lodi, Amit Kumar and Firoz Verjee

  • Seismic Performance of Post-Heated Reinforced Concrete Frame Joints

Yuzhuo Wang, Venkatesh Kodur, Chuanguo Fu, Chunyang Liu and Huanting Zhou

  • Near-Field Explosion Effects on Reinforced Concrete Columns

Abass Braimah, Farouk Siba and Bert Von Rosen

  • Influence of Lateral Load Resisting System on Collapse Performance of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Blasts

Alaa Chehab and Christopher Eamon

  • Damage and Loss of Capacity of RC Columns Subjected to Close-In Detonations: An Experimental and Numerical Program

Christophe Pontiroli, Magali Arlery and Alain Rouquand

  • Finite Element Analysis and Modeling of Steel Beams under Blast Loading

Sayed Mohamad Soleimani and Nader Ghareeb

  • Protection Using SC Composite Structures: Overview of Blast and Impact Resistance

Jakob C. Bruhl and Amit H. Varma

  • Factors Governing the Dynamic Response of Reinforced Reactive Powder Concrete Slabs Under Explosive Loads

Xiaomeng Hou, Gang Li, Wenzhong Zheng, Chongxi Bai and Qin Rong

  • Sensitivity Analysis of Progressive Collapse of Steel Moment Frames Subjected to Blast Loading

Anil Kumar and Vasant Matsagar

  • Numerical Calculation of a Blast Load on the Example of a Slab and Wall Structure of Any Geometry

Michal Lidner

  • Mineral-Phenolic Foam for Blast Mitigation

Matteo Colombo, Paolo Martinelli, Roberto Zedda, Aldino Albertelli and Nicola Marino

  • Development of Simplified Analytical Tools for Impact and Impulsive Loading Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Slabs

Andac Lulec and Frank J. Vecchio

  • Residual Velocity of Rigid Projectiles Perforating Concrete Barriers

Hezi Grisaro and Avraham N. Dancygier

  • Impact Response Analysis of RC Beams by Means of Fiber Element Approach

Masato Komuro, Norimitsu Kishi, Yuji Ushiwatari and Masahiro Takeda

  • Damage Analysis of a Bridge Deck under the Impact of a Massive Falling Cargo from Passing Truck

Rujin Ma, Xiaoyu Zhou and Airong Chen

  • Analysis of a Bridge Substructure Subject to Falling Rock Impact

Xiaoyu Zhou, Rujin Ma and Airong Chen

  • Analytical Study of Reinforced Concrete Beams Tested under Impact Loading

Sayed Mohamad Soleimani and Sajad Sayar Roudsari

  • Vehicle Collision with Reinforced Concrete Bridge Columns

Omar I. Abdelkarim and Mohamed A. Elgawady

  • Falling-Weight Impact Tests of Flexural Strengthened RC Beams with AFRP Sheet

Yusuke Kurihashi, Hisashi Kon-No, Hiroshi Mikami and Norimitsu Kishi

  • Design of Structures for the Effects of Falling Objects

Ashok Malhotra, Dan Carson and Scott Funnell

  • Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Slabs under High-Mass Low-Velocity Impact

Trevor D. Hrynyk and Frank J. Vecchio

  • Dynamic Delamination of Fire Insulation Applied on Steel Structures under High Strain Rate Loading

Amir Arablouei and Venkatesh Kodur

  • Impact and Residual Capacities of Ultra-High-Performance Fiber-Reinforced Concrete Beams with Steel Rebars

Doo-Yeol Yoo, Young-Soo Yoon and Nemkumar Banthia




  • Structural Failure of Reinforced Concrete Bearing Walls under Fire: A Full-Scale Experimental Investigation

Kevin A. Mueller and Yahya C. Kurama

  • Modeling Shear Failure in Precast Prestressed Concrete Hollowcore Slabs under Fire Conditions

Anuj M. Shakya and Venkatesh K. R. Kodur

  • Practical Reliability-Based Calculation Tool for the Post-Fire Assessment of Concrete Beams

Ruben Van Coile, Robby Caspeele and Luc Taerwe

  • The Punching Shear Mechanism in Reinforced-Concrete Slabs under Fire Conditions

Holly K. M. Smith, Tim Stratford and Luke Bisby

  • Effect of Temperature Induced Bond Degradation on Fire Response of Reinforced Concrete Beams

Ankit Agrawal and Venkatesh K. R. Kodur

  • Blast and Fire Design of Precast Layered FRC Tunnel Segments

Matteo Colombo, Paolo Martinelli and Marco Di Prisco

  • Influence of Curing Regimes on Flexural Behaviour of Ultra-High Performance Concrete Beams

Charles Kahanji, Faris Ali and Ali Nadjai

  • Experimental Study on Fire Performance of Loaded Reinforced Concrete Beams

Dharmendra Singh, Suvir Singh and S. K. Bhattacharyya

  • Post-Fire Investigations of Prestressed Concrete Structures

Lucie Robertson, John Gales, Tim Stratford and Amer Al-Merabi

  • Tensile Membrane Action and the Performance of Composite Slabs in Fire

Ian Burgess and Shan-Shan Huang

  • New Design of Beam FRP Reinforcement for Fire Performance

Mohamed Kiari, Tim Stratford and Luke Bisby

  • Elevated Temperature Performance of Concrete Beams Reinforced With FRP Bars

Emma R.E. McIntyre, Luke A. Bisby and Tim J. Stratford

  • Practical Strategies for Enhancing Fire Resistance of FRP-Strengthened Reinforced Concrete Beams

Aqeel Ahmed and Venkatesh Kodur

  • Fire Protection of CFRP-Strengthened RC Structures

Piotr Turkowski and Pawel Sulik

  • Numerical Analysis of Composite Beams with Shear-Tab Connections Subjected to Fire

Erica C. Fischer and Amit H. Varma

  • Behavior and Design of Composite Beams for Fire Loading

Kristi L. Selden and Amit H. Varma

  • Modelling Thermal Profiles in Fire-Exposed Concrete Filled Hollow Steel Sections Protected with Intumescent Paint

David Rush, Luke Bisby and Allan Jowsey

  • Structural Fire Design for Composite Steel Deck Construction in Canada

Matthew Smith, John Gales, Sobhy Masoud and Hossein Mostafaei

  • Behavior of Prestressed Tension Steel Members Exposed to Fire

Huanting Zhou, V.K.R. Kodur, Jian Zhang and Yuzhuo Wang

  • Built-Up Closed Cold-Formed Steel Columns with Restrained Thermal Elongation Subjected to Fire

Hélder D. Craveiro, João Paulo C. Rodrigues and Luís Laím

  • Structural Exposure of Steel Frame in Large Fire Incident

Peter Senez, Keith Calder, Adrian Milford and Andrew Coles

  • Probabilistic Evaluation of a 9-Story Steel MRF Subject To Post Earthquake Fires

Negar Elhami Khorasani, Maria Garlock and Paolo Gardoni

  • Fire Performance of Steel Tubular Columns Filled With Normal Strength Concrete

Wojciech Szymkuc, Adam Glema and Michal Malendowski

  • A Streamlined Approach to Calculating the Response of Bridge Structures to Open-Air Hydrocarbon Fires

Spencer Quiel, Takayuki Yokoyama, Kevin Mueller, Lynne Bregman and Shalva Marjanishvili

  • Strategies for Enhancing Fire Performance of Steel Bridges

Venkatesh K. Kodur, Mohannad Z. Naser and Esam M. Aziz

  • Performance of Prestressed Concrete Bridge Girders Exposed to Fire

Gang Zhang, Venkatesh K.R. Kodur, Cuijuan Wang and Shuanhai He

  • Ballistic and Fire Resistance of Hybrid GRP Reinforced Timber Doors

Faris Ali, Bernard McAree and Niall Mooney

  • Applying Fire-LCA Methodology to Fire Protection Systems in Buildings

Johan Sjöström and David Lange

  • A Priori Round Robin Study of the Calculated Response of a Loaded Steel Beam to a Furnace Test

David Lange and Lars Boström

  • Experimental Study on the Fire Endurance of Post-Installed Rebar Connection System

Jiangtao Yu, Wanli Xu and Changqing Liu

  • Improvements in Predictions for Steel Fire Doors Subjected to the Fire Endurance Test

Mahmood Tabaddor and Raja Subramani

  • Structural Fire Exposure of Transit Stations Relative to Vehicle Fires

Peter Senez, Keith Calder, Adrian Milford and Andrew Coles

  • Development of Fire Field Model Incorporating Pyrolysis for Burning of Flame-Retardant Polystyrene in Enclosures

Timothy Tsz Kit Tang, Peng Zhao, Anthony Chun, Yin Yuen, Richard Kwok, Kit Yuen, Siu Ming Lo and Yuan Hu

  • Assessment and Rehabilitation of Fire Damaged Reinforced Concrete Building—A Case Study

Aqeel Ahmed and Mansoor Khalid

  • ETICS Fire Performance Test

Ivana Banjad Pecur, Dubravka Bjegovic, Lars Boström, Bojan Milovanovic and Milan Hajdukovic

  • Development of a Matrix Method Based Framework for the Thermo-Mechanical Analysis of RCC Frames

Ravi Prakash and Gaurav Srivastava

  • Localized Fire for Structural Safety

Chao Zhang

Author Index

ISBN: 978-1-60595-227-7



USD Price: $229.50