Peanuts: Bioactives and Allergens

Edited by:
N. Alice Lee, Ph.D., ARC Training Centre for Advanced Technologies in Food Manufacture, University of New South Wales
Graeme C. Wright, Ph.D. and Rao C.N. Rachaputi, Ph.D., Queensland Alliance in Agriculture and Food Innovation, University of Queensland

978-1-60595-036-5, ©2016, 382 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Investigates the chemistry and bioactivity of the peanut as a food ingredient
  • Clarifies the causes of health effects in the human diet, both positive and negative
  • Presents technical strategies to increase peanuts’ value and reduce risks

With the peanut representing an ever-increasing component of the global diet, the current book presents a scientific analysis of the two main and dichotomous properties of peanuts: allergenicity and health. The volume provides a technical explanation of the bioactive nutrients and dietary benefits of the peanut. It also reviews and analyzes the evidence implicating peanuts as a food allergen. Moving beyond nutritional science to food technology and engineering, the book demonstrates how genetic, pre-harvest, post-harvest and processing technologies can be applied to increase the nutraceutical value of peanuts and mitigate their risks.

Preface
Contributors

Chapter 1. Peanut: A Friend or Foe?
Rao C.N. Rachaputi, G.C. Wright and N. Alice Lee
1.1. Introduction
1.2. References

Chapter 2. Peanut Fatty Acids and Their Impacts on Human Health
Lisa L. Dean, Karen E. Constanza, Jack P. Davis, and Timothy H. Sanders
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Major Fatty Acids in Peanuts
2.3. Functionality of Peanut Oil Fatty Acids in Relation to Human Health
2.4. Specific Health Issues
2.5. Conclusions
2.6. Disclaimer
2.7. References

Chapter 3. Perspectives of Peanut Phytoalexins: Biosynthesis and Bioproduction, and Their Applications in Human Health
Jose Condori and Fabricio Medina-Bolivar
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Phytoalexins in Peanuts
3.3. Biosynthesis of Stilbenoids
3.4. Biological Activity of Peanut Phytoalexins
3.5. Conclusions and Future Directions
3.6. Acknowledgements
3.7. References

Chapter 4. Antioxidant Capacity in Food Crops: A Case Study in Peanuts
Kim-Yen Phan-Thien, N. Alice Lee and Graeme C. Wright
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Review of Antioxidant Capacity Assay Methods
4.3. Applications
4.4. Conclusions
4.5. References

Chapter 5. Antioxidant Components in Peanuts
Kim-Yen Phan-Thien, N. Alice Lee and Graeme C. Wright
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Analytical Methods for Antioxidant Profiling of Peanuts
5.3. The Peanut Antioxidant Profile
5.4. Conjugated and Matrix-bound Antioxidants
5.5. Conclusions
5.6. References

Chapter 6. Breeding Cultivars with Enhanced Functional Food Traits: Current Status and Future Prospects
Barry L. Tillman
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Chemical Composition of Peanut
6.3. Genotypic Variation in Major Phytochemicals
6.4. Conclusions
6.5. Acknowledgments
6.6. References

Chapter 7. Allergenic Proteins in Peanuts
N. Alice Lee, Eriyanto Yusnawan and Xin Sun
7.1. Introduction
7.2. Mechanism of Peanut Allergies
7.3. Prevalence and Outgrowth Rate of Peanut Allergies
7.4. Symptoms of Peanut Allergic Reactions
7.5. Diagnosis of a Peanut Allergy
7.6. Doses for Eliciting a Peanut Allergy Reaction
7.7. Characteristics of Peanut Allergens
7.8. Cross-Reactivity
7.9. Digestibility of Peanut Allergens
7.10. Conclusions
7.11. References

Chapter 8. Risk Analysis for Food Allergens: Peanut Example
Ben Remington, Joe Baumert and Steve L. Taylor
8.1. Introduction
8.2. Risk Assessment
8.3. Chocolate Ice Cream Contaminated with Peanut after Failure to Properly Clean Equipment
8.4. Risk Management
8.5. Conclusions
8.6. Acknowledgments
8.7. References

Chapter 9. Industry Allergen Management and Current Initiatives in Food Manufacturing: Peanuts
Kirsten Grinter, Robin Sherlock, Fiona Fleming and Georgina Christensen
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Allergen Regulations
9.3. Use of Peanuts in the Food Manufacturing Industry
9.4. Allergen Management
9.5. The Role of Analysis in Allergen Management
9.6. Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (Vital)
9.7. Dedicated Manufacturing Facilities—Peanut and Tree Nut Free Facilities
9.8. Risk Communication: Allergen Labelling
9.9. Conclusions
9.10. References

Chapter 10. Immunoanalytical Techniques for Peanut Allergen Detection
N. Alice Lee and Xin Sun
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Immunoassay for Food Allergens
10.3. Matrix Interferences
10.4. Validation of an ELISA for Peanut Allergen Detection
10.5. Conclusions
10.6. References

Chapter 11. Advances in the LC-MS/MS Technique for Peanut Allergen Detection
Terry B. Koerner and Samuel B. Godefroy
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Mass Spectrometry Instrumentation and Data Collection
11.3. Mass Spectrometry Data and Protein Identification
11.4. Using LC-MS/MS for Peanut Protein Characterization
11.5. Peptide Markers for Peanut Protein
11.6. Future of Peanut Analysis using LC-MS/MS
11.7. References

Chapter 12. Breeding Versus Bioengineering of Hypoallergenic Peanuts
Peggy Ozias-Akins and C. Corley Holbrook
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Breeding System and Genetic Diversity
12.3. Bioengineering of Hypoallergenic Peanuts
12.4. Conclusions
12.5. Acknowledgments
12.6. References

Chapter 13. Oral Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Peanut Allergy
Mimi L.K. Tang and Intan H. Ismail
13.1. Introduction
13.2. Mechanisms of Food Allergy
13.3. Current Management of a Food Allergy
13.4. Conclusions
12.5. Acknowledgments
13.6. References

Index

  1. :

    Acta Alimentaria, Vol. 45 (3), p. 457 (2016)
    DOI 10.1556/066.2016.45.3.18
    BOOK REVIEW
    Peanuts: Bioactives and allergens
    N.A. LEE, G.C. WRIGHT and R.C.N. RACHAPUTI (Eds)
    DEStech Publications, Inc., 439 North Duke Street, Lancaster, PA 17602-4967, U.S.A
    ISBN 978-1-60595-036-5, 382 pages
    Peanut is widely produced in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Peanut kernels are
    utilized as major source of cooking oil in developing countries and used in snack food
    industries in developed countries due to growing trends of vegetarianism and demand for
    healthy food. There is an increasing expectation in the food and nutrition science and also
    from consumers to understand the physiological importance of peanut ingredients representing
    a growing importance in global diet. However, food safety concerns related to aflatoxin
    contamination and allergenic proteins of peanuts have become mayor public health issues
    globally.
    This current book presents a science based approach concerning the health related
    beneficial effects and allergenic risk of peanut as food ingredient. The volume provides a
    review on bioactive nutrients and their dietary benefi ts and analyses the evidence implicating
    peanuts as a food allergen. Beside the nutritional science, food technology and engineering
    approaches are emerging, and the book demonstrates how genetic, pre-harvest, post-harvest,
    and processing technologies can be applied to increase peanuts’ value and to reduce risks.
    The book includes 13 chapters edited and compiled by contributions of well-recognized
    scientists coming from 5 countries: U.S.A. (11), Australia (13), Canada (2), The Netherlands
    (1), and Indonesia (1).
    Chapter 1 provides a comprehensive and up-to-date introduction and review of both
    beneficial and allergenic compounds present in peanut kernels, including current information
    on bioengineering and allergen management. Chapters 2–5 in this book discuss various
    aspects of peanut that make it nutritionally important, such as the role of fatty acids in
    prevention and treatment of certain chronic diseases in humans, the perspectives of
    phytoalexins and their application to human health, antioxidant capacity of peanut and its
    antioxidant components. Chapter 9 deals with the current status and future prospect of
    breeding cultivars with enhanced functional food traits, including the chemical composition
    of peanut and genotypic variation in mayor phytochemicals. Chapters 7–13 provide science
    based overviews on allergenic peanut proteins and risk management strategies including such
    important issues as the mechanism of peanut allergy and characteristics of peanut allergens,
    risk analysis for peanut allergens, industry allergen management and current initiatives in
    peanut based food manufacturing, immunoanalytical and LC-NS/MS techniques based detection
    of peanut allergens, breeding vs bioengineering technologies for development of hypoallergenic
    peanuts, and current management of peanut allergy using oral immunotherapy.
    E. GELENCSÉR

  2. :

    Peanuts are an important source of food, animal feed and oil world-wide, their value marred only by an allergic reaction to certain of their proteins, a reaction that is increasing in
    frequency for no clear reason. Some 1–3% of people are affected globally. In Australia, the estimate is around 0.2% of children. The allergy is not one that is outgrown. The condition
    is very distressing and potentially life-threatening.

    Peanuts, Bioactives and Allergens is a splendid compilation of essays put together to present current understanding and research on aspects of the composition and allergenic proteins of peanuts. It covers a broad range of subjects in commendable detail, beginning with the fatty acids of peanut oil glycerides and finishing with possibilities for oral immunotherapy for allergy sufferers. The authors come from various organisations and departments, Australia being well represented.

    There are 13 chapters, each written by at least two authors. Some authors appear more than once, a number are also the editors. Each chapter stands alone but follows a logical
    progression. The chapters are well-referenced; Chapter 2, for example, has 222 references. Good use is made of summary tables. Some of the aspects discussed are subject to very active
    research, so the reader may have to top up the knowledge presented, but for any scientist or student wishing to gain an appreciation of the state of play in the subject fields, this will
    be an invaluable point of reference. A minor criticism might be made: with more rigorous editing, particularly of syntax in Chapters 1 and 2, the book would have been easier to read.

    The fatty acids, phytoalexins (substances produced in response to stress) and antioxidants present in peanuts are explored in detail along with their current and potential health
    effects. Analytical issues with these groups make interesting reading; for example, the ‘result’ for antioxidant concentration depends on the selected method(s) for extraction and hydrolysis
    as well as on all the details of the test parameters. A timely comment reminds us that correlation is not causation: ‘Studies correlated total dietary fat with breast cancer, but more
    extensive studies showed that the association was in fact with trans monounsaturated fats’.

    Chapter 6 considers general approaches to breeding for enhanced functional food traits, with special reference to peanuts. Breeding has already produced cultivars that have high oleic content in the fatty acids, but there are many other compounds of potential interest present, including hypo allergenic proteins. Possibilities of breeding versus bioengineering to achieve hypoallergenicity are examined in Chapter 12.

    Chapter 7 assesses the allergenic proteins in great detail; 17 have been identified to date, of which four seem chiefly responsible. They display unique characteristics such as thermal stability and resistance to proteolytic hydrolysis. It is likely the Maillard reactions that add to flavour add also to allergenicity!

    The next chapter discusses very clearly the regulatory approaches to disclosure of allergens and to ascribing limits, as well as the potential for risk analysis to inject some science into arbitrary decisions. Even the compulsory declaration of the presence of known allergens has the problem of over-stating the risk and hence dismissal by the consumer. The complexities of assessing and combining the probabilities of consumer uptake from eating habits with the no-effect level (which can vary up to five orders of magnitude among individuals) are severe.

    Later chapters cover industry approaches to containing cross-contamination of foods by allergens and the rather daunting challenges of immunological assays. Next are the possibilities of utilising linked mass spectrometry for highly specific characterisation and measurement of individual proteins. To date, the rewards here have been more in the area of defining reference substances than providing a tool for routine assays.

    Finally, work to desensitise allergy sufferers is explored. At the time of last citation (2011), oral treatment had been demonstrated to succeed, though not without treatment
    difficulties, and many aspects such as tolerance and longer-term side-effects remain to be investigated.
    Bruce Graham FRACI CChem
    Chemistry in Australia, Nov. 2016

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