Packaging Design Decisions

A Technical Guide

Roland ten Klooster, Ph.D., Chair, Packaging Design and Management, University of Twente, Netherlands, Frans Lox, Ph.D., Professor, Free University of Brussels, Belgium, Ton Schilperoord, Ir., Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research TNO (ret.), Netherlands

978-1-60595-070-9, ©2019, 400 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Provides practical tips for package designers and design team members to plan cost-effective and problem-free packages
  • Spells out design requirements and limitations through all phases of a package’s lifecycle
  • Describes the impact of materials, manufacturing, test methods, and regulations on packaging options
  • Covers plastics, paper, metal and glass consumer and distribution packaging
  • A proven and critical reference for professionals who design and engineer packaging


Based on a popular handbook published originally in the Dutch language, this volume is intended to help package designers and design team members achieve cost-effective and problem-free packages for consumers and distribution. It does so by laying out the many phases of a package’s lifecycle and showing the design elements that must be decided upon at each stage. In this context, the book highlights multiple points where designers and engineers must choose correctly in order to create a visually appealing as well as cost-effective and manufacturable package—and one that is also safe and sustainable. The text delves into materials, machinery, printing, test methods, and regulations and shows how subtle changes in components and processing affect designers’ options. Extensive data is provided to plan barrier films, cartons, cans, jars, bottles, and shipping containers, including closures and labeling.


From the Preface


To ensure that the broadest spectrum of packaging knowledge is brought to bear on the decisions of design, the present book is organized around the concept of the packaging chain extended, which covers not only primary features of a package, but many value-added processes such as printing, selecting special materials, using the right equipment, providing proper barriers, and ensuring intelligent disposal. The authors show how each stage of the chain entails making choices with positive (and negative) consequences for other segments of the chain. Numerous case studies demonstrate how apparently minor choices can lead to attractive and cost-effective packages.


Chapter 1. Introduction
1.1. Avoiding Mistaken Decisions Traceable to the Complexity of Packaging
1.2. Understanding Packaging as Indispensable for Modern Commerce, Culture, and Consumption
1.2.1. Significantly Added Value
1.2.2. Culture
1.3. Defining Packaging and Packaging-product Combinations
1.3.1. Definitions
1.3.2. Packaging Defined from Perspective of Legislation
1.3.3. Definition in Terms of Layers
1.3.4. Functionality
1.3.5. Packaging-product Combinations
1.4. The Interdisciplinary Character of Packaging; Mirror of Technology and Society
1.4.1. Changing Techniques of Storage and Transport
1.5. The Audience, Aim, and Structure of this Book
1.5.1. The Three Parts of this Book


Chapter 2. The Packaging Chain, Product Vulnerabilities, and Packaging Functions
2.1. Introduction
2.2. The Packaging Chain, A Model and Overview to Help Planning and Decisions
2.2.1. Lifestyle and Packaging Chain
2.2.2. Where Does the Chain End
2.3. Vulnerabilities of Products
2.3.1. Types of Vulnerability
2.3.2. Vulnerabilities and Product Groups
2.3.3. Food
2.3.4. Quality Loss and Deterioration in Food
2.3.5. Medical Devices and Medicines
2.3.6. Vulnerabilities of Durables
2.3.7. High-turnover Consumer Goods
2.3.8. Industrial Goods in Bulk Packaging
2.3.9. Hazardous Substances and Dangerous Goods
2.4. Packaging Functions: An Overview and Checklist
2.4.1. Packaging Functions
2.4.2. Distinguishing and Arranging Packaging Functions
2.4.3. The Five Sets of Direct Packaging Functions
2.4.4. Packaging Functions at Stages of the Packaging Chain
2.4.5. Functions Resulting from Promising Techniques
2.5. Indirect Packaging Functions
2.5.1. Packaging as Sales Tool
2.5.2. Convenience
2.5.3. Cost Related Functions
2.5.4. Societal Aspects
2.6. The Packaging Triangle
2.7. Conclusion

Chapter 3. Basics of Packaging Design, Methodology, Innovation, and Evaluation
3.1. Introduction
3.2. The Decision Chain in Design
3.2.1. From Marketing to Design
3.2.2. From Design to Engineering
3.2.3. From Engineering to a Running Packaging Line
3.2.4. Design Team
3.3. Innovation to Design
3.4. Design Methodologies in General
3.4.1. The Process of Graphic Packaging Design
3.4.2. The Process of Structural Packaging Design
3.5. Simulation Techniques
3.5.1. Models and Prototypes
3.5.2. Strength
3.5.3. Using the Package
3.5.4. Heating a Package (with Content)
3.5.5. Mechanical Buffering Capacity
3.5.6. Running on the Packaging Line
3.5.7. Costs
3.6. Consumer Acceptance
3.7. Accessibility and Usability of Packaging
3.7.1. Introduction
3.7.2. Usability
3.7.3. A Systematic Approach to Introduce Usability in Packaging Design
3.7.4. Tamper-evident, Pilfer-proof, Child-resistant, Age-related Features of Packaging
3.7.5. Practical Examples of Designing Accessible Packaging
3.7.6. The Challenges of Design
3.8. Design Evaluation and Decision

Chapter 4. A Model of Packaging Design and Decisions
4.1. Analysis of Packaging Design Processes
4.2. Stage-gate Detailing, Modeling and Engineering of Packaging Design Proposals
4.3. Stage-gate Model Proposed and Illustrated
4.4. Entering the First Gate: How the Project Begins
4.5. The Analysis Stage
4.6. Syntheses of New Packaging Ideas
4.7. Simulation of Packaging Concepts
4.8. The Evaluation Stage
4.8.1. A Generic Design Cycle
4.8.2. Design Cycle Applied to Three Main Packaging Functions
4.9. Methods and Decisions


Chapter 5. Packaging Materials, Properties, and Their Packaging Functions
5.1. Introduction
5.2. An Overview of Packaging Materials, Principles of Decision Making
5.3. Materials and the Packed Product
5.3.1. Foods
5.3.2. Chemicals
5.3.3. Durables
5.4. Stresses
5.4.1. Mechanical Hazards
5.4.2. Biological Influences
5.4.3. Migration
5.4.4. Child Resistant Packaging
5.5. Mechanical Influences
5.5.1. Shape Stiffness
5.5.2. Resistance to Stacking
5.5.3. Compressibility
5.5.4. Vibrations
5.5.5. Tensile Strength
5.6. Non-mechanical Stresses
5.6.1. Exposure to Radiation Energy
5.6.2. Absorption of Light
5.6.3. Permeability of Materials
5.6.4. Thermal Insulation
5.6.5. Electrostatic Insulation
5.6.6. Biological Influences
5.6.7. Chemical Influences
5.6.8. Biochemical Influences
5.6.9. Migration Phenomena
5.7. Properties in Practice—Calculations and Cases
5.7.1. Permeation of Gases Through Films as a Function of Time
5.7.2. Cushioning Packaging: Case Study
5.8. Conclusion

Chapter 6. Basics of Packaging Printing Technologies, Adhesives, Labeling, and Sleeving
6.1. Introduction
6.2. Printing Techniques
6.2.1. Three Main Printing Techniques
6.2.2. New Developments in Printing of Packaging
6.3. Adhesives
6.3.1. How Adhesives Work
6.3.2. Adhesive Types
6.3.3. Choosing an Adhesive
6.4. Labeling and Sleeving
6.4.1. Applications of Labels
6.4.2. Carton Sleeves around Trays and Cup

Chapter 7. Paper, Board, and Corrugated Board
7.1. Introduction: Raw Materials and Production Processes
7.1.1. Fibers to Pulp
7.1.2. Pulped Fibers to Paper and Board
7.2. Packaging Applications of Wood Fiber-based Materials
7.2.1. Paper and Board
7.2.2. Folding Boxboard
7.2.3. Corrugated Board
7.2.4. Solid Board
7.2.5. Molded Pulp Packaging
7.2.6. Other Fiber-based Packaging
7.3. Papers as Packaging Material
7.3.1. Reasons to Choose Paper or Laminates with Paper as Packaging Material
7.4. Folding Boxboard
7.4.1. Factors in Selecting Folding Boxboard
7.5. Corrugated Board
7.5.1. Types of Paper Used for Corrugated Boxes
7.5.2. Processing Corrugated Board
7.5.3. Factors Influencing the Choice Between Different Types of Corrugated Boxes
7.6. Solid Board
7.7. Pulp Packaging
7.8. Other Fiber-based Packaging
7.8.1. Future and Market Share

Chapter 8. Plastics
8.1. Introduction
8.1.1. Properties of Plastics Relevant to Packaging Design: Molecular Orientation, Morphology, Polarity
8.1.2. Types of Plastics
8.1.3. The Extruder
8.2. Thermoplastics Used for Packaging
8.2.1. An Overview of Thermoplastics and their Properties Related to Packaging
8.2.2. Other Polymers and Elastomers Used in Packaging
8.3. Plastics Related to Package Flexibility
8.3.1. Flexible Plastic Packaging
8.3.2. Semi-rigid Packaging
8.3.3. Rigid Packaging
8.4. Production Processes of Plastics for Packaging
8.4.1. Injection Molding
8.4.2. Thermoforming
8.4.3. Extrusion Blow Molding
8.4.4. Injection Blow Molding
8.4.5. Production of Plastic Films
8.5. Shrink Films
8.6. Rotational Molding
8.7. Characteristics and Design Principles
8.7.1. Characteristics that Determine the Choice of Plastic and Flexible Materials
8.7.2. Design Principles and Choosing the Right Type of Plastic
8.7.3. Steps in Selecting a Type of Plastic
8.8. List of Abbreviations

Chapter 9. Metal Packaging
9.1. Introduction
9.2. Raw Materials
9.3. Overview of Metals Used for Packaging
9.4. Dimensions and Standardization
9.5. Types of Applications
9.6. Design Engineering Features for Metal Packaging
9.7. Strengths and Weaknesses
9.8. Providing Information
9.9. Production of Metal Packaging
9.10. Caps and Closures
9.10.1. Metal Closures for Bottles
9.10.2. Metal Closures for Jars and Vials
9.10.3. Standardization of Screw Threads
9.10.4. Factors in Choosing Metal Closures
9.11. Coatings
9.12. Sustainability
9.13. Properties that Determine the Choice of Metal Packaging
9.13.1. Shelf Life
9.13.2. Retort
9.13.3. Pressurized Products
9.13.4. Gloss and Other Features
9.13.5. Thermal Properties
9.13.6. High-speed Processing
9.14. Deign Principles and Choosing the Right Type of Metal
9.15. The Future of Steel Packaging

Chapter 10. Glass
10.1. Introduction
10.2. Raw Materials
10.3. Types and Characteristics of Glass
10.3.1. Introduction
10.3.2. Container Glass
10.3.3. Classification of Glass for Pharmaceutical Use
10.4. Manufacture of Glass
10.5. Production of Glass Packaging
10.5.1. Glass Blowing Processes
10.5.2. Production of Glass Packaging by Tube Extrusion
10.5.3. Production of Glass Packaging by Pressing
10.6. Decoration of Glass Containers
10.7. Processing and Closing of Glass Packaging
10.7.1. Processing of Glass Packaging
10.7.2. Closing Glass Packaging
10.8. Applications
10.9. Design Principles for Glass Containers
10.9.1. Introduction
10.9.2. Fundamental Aspects
10.9.3. Design for Ease of Use and Convenience
10.10. Inspection
10.10.1. Type of Faults
10.10.2. Quality Specifications

Chapter 11. Material Combinations
11.1. Introduction
11.2. Laminates
11.2.1. Waxed Laminates
11.2.2. Extrusion Laminates
11.2.3. Co-extrusion Laminates
11.2.4. Adhesive Laminates
11.2.5. Thermal Laminates
11.2.6. Age and Duration of Laminates
11.3. Coatings
11.3.1. Wax Coating
11.3.2. Heat Seal Lacquer Coating
11.3.3. Polyethylene (PE)
11.3.4. Cold Seal Lacquer Coating
11.3.5. Acrylic Coating
11.3.6. PVdC Coating
11.3.7. PVOH Coating
11.3.8. Metal Coating or Metalized Films
11.3.9. SiOx-coating
11.3.10. Polypropylene (PP) Coated Films

Chapter 12. Wood, Ceramics, Cork, Textiles
12.1. Introduction
12.2. Wood
12.3. Ceramics
12.4. Cork
12.5. Textiles


Chapter 13. Setting Up a Packaging Line for Different Types of Packaging
13.1. Introduction
13.1.1. Concept of a Packaging Line
13.1.2. Capacity of Packaging Line
13.2. Start-up Considerations
13.2.1. The Layout of a Packaging Line
13.2.2. Choice of Machinery and Equipment
13.2.3. Product Properties: Options and Restrictions
13.2.4. Dispensing and Automatic Measuring
13.3. Quality Control
13.4. Efficiency of a Packaging Line

Chapter 14. Physical-chemical Methods of Assessment in Practice
14.1. Getting Started
14.2. The Selection of Methods of Assessment
14.3. Vibration Testing
14.4. Chemical-physical Compatibility of Plastic Packaging
14.5. Thermal Insulation
14.6. Drop Test
14.7. Stacking Test and Compression Test
14.8. Inclined impact Test
14.9. Hydraulic Pressure Test
14.10. Global Migration Test
14.11. Tensile Test
14.12. Gas Permeation Through Films and Other Packaging Materials

Chapter 15. Sustainable Packaging Design and the Importance of LCA
15.1. Definitions of Sustainability
15.2. Life Cycle Analysis
15.2.1. Scope
15.2.2. Methodology
15.2.3. Functional Unit
15.2.4. Analysis of the Results
15.2.5. Software, Databases and Results
15.2.6. LCA in Practice
15.3. Final Note on LCA

Chapter 16. Legislation
16.1. Introduction 355
16.2. Legislation on Food Packaging
16.3. Legislation on the Packaging of Dangerous Goods/hazardous Materials
16.4. Legislation on Consumer Packaging
16.5. Legislation on Sustainability
16.6. Legislation on Intellectual Property

Chapter 17. Costs of Packaging, Costs in Relation to the Chain, and the Costs of Failures
17.1. Introduction
17.2. Key Figures of Packaging Costs
17.2.1. Key Figures for Plastic Packaging
17.2.2. Flexible Films
17.2.3. Key Figures for Paper and Board Packaging
17.2.4. Key Figures for Metal Packaging
17.2.5. Key figures for Packed Products
17.3. Integral Cost Approach
17.3.1. Principles of Setting Up a Cost Profit Structure
17.3.2. The Three Main Links in the Packaging Chain
17.3.3. Method: Activity Based Costing (ABC)
17.4. Costs in Relation to Failures in the Packaging Chain
17.4.1. Selected Areas of Failure
17.4.2. Techniques for Addressing Package Failure
17.4.3. Pre- and Post-consumer Problems
17.4.4. Ishikawa Diagram
17.5. Final Remark on Costs of Packaging

Chapter 18. Epilogue
18.1. Introduction


Packaging Design Decisions (Entire eBook)
$95.00 Save: $34.50
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: The Packaging Chain, Product Vulnerabilities, and Packaging Functions
Chapter 3: Basics of Packaging Design, Methodology, Innovation, and Evaluation
Chapter 4: A Model of Packaging Design and Decisions
Chapter 5: Packaging Materials, Properties, and Their Packaging Functions
Chapter 6: Basics of Packaging Printing Technologies, Adhesives, Labeling, and Sleeving
Chapter 7: Paper, Board, and Corrugated Board
Chapter 8: Plastics
Chapter 9: Metal Packaging
Chapter 10: Glass
Chapter 11: Material Combinations
Chapter 12: Wood, Ceramics, Cork, Textiles
Chapter 13: Setting Up a Packaging Line for Different Types of Packaging
Chapter 14: Physical-chemical Methods of Assessment in Practice
Chapter 15: Sustainable Packaging Design and the Importance of LCA
Chapter 16: Legislation
Chapter 17: Costs of Packaging, Costs in Relation to the Chain, and the Costs of Failures .
Chapter 18: Epilogue

978-1-60595-070-9, ©2019, 400 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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