Packaging Design Decisions

A Technical Guide

Roland ten Klooster, Ph.D., Chair, Packaging Design and Management, University of Twente, Netherlands, Frans Lox, Ph.D., Professor, Free University of Brussels, Belgium, Ton Schilperoord, Ir., Netherlands Organization of Applied Scientific Research TNO (ret.), Netherlands

978-1-60595-070-9, ©2019, 400 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • Provides practical tips for package designers and design team members to plan cost-effective and problem-free packages
  • Spells out design requirements and limitations through all phases of a package’s lifecycle
  • Describes the impact of materials, manufacturing, test methods, and regulations on packaging options
  • Covers plastics, paper, metal and glass consumer and distribution packaging
  • A proven and critical reference for professionals who design and engineer packaging


Based on a popular handbook published originally in the Dutch language, this volume is intended to help package designers and design team members achieve cost-effective and problem-free packages for consumers and distribution. It does so by laying out the many phases of a package’s lifecycle and showing the design elements that must be decided upon at each stage. In this context, the book highlights multiple points where designers and engineers must choose correctly in order to create a visually appealing as well as cost-effective and manufacturable package—and one that is also safe and sustainable. The text delves into materials, machinery, printing, test methods, and regulations and shows how subtle changes in components and processing affect designers’ options. Extensive data is provided to plan barrier films, cartons, cans, jars, bottles, and shipping containers, including closures and labeling.


From the Preface


To ensure that the broadest spectrum of packaging knowledge is brought to bear on the decisions of design, the present book is organized around the concept of the packaging chain extended, which covers not only primary features of a package, but many value-added processes such as printing, selecting special materials, using the right equipment, providing proper barriers, and ensuring intelligent disposal. The authors show how each stage of the chain entails making choices with positive (and negative) consequences for other segments of the chain. Numerous case studies demonstrate how apparently minor choices can lead to attractive and cost-effective packages.



Chapter 1. Introduction

1.1. Avoiding Mistaken Decisions Traceable to the Complexity of Packaging

1.2. Understanding Packaging as Indispensable for Modern Commerce, Culture, and Consumption

1.2.1. Significantly Added Value

1.2.2. Culture

1.3. Defining Packaging and Packaging-product Combinations

1.3.1. Definitions

1.3.2. Packaging Defined from Perspective of Legislation

1.3.3. Definition in Terms of Layers

1.3.4. Functionality

1.3.5. Packaging-product Combinations

1.4. The Interdisciplinary Character of Packaging; Mirror of Technology and Society

1.4.1. Changing Techniques of Storage and Transport

1.5. The Audience, Aim, and Structure of this Book

1.5.1. The Three Parts of this Book




Chapter 2. The Packaging Chain, Product Vulnerabilities, and Packaging Functions

2.1. Introduction

2.2. The Packaging Chain, A Model and Overview to Help Planning and Decisions

2.2.1. Lifestyle and Packaging Chain

2.2.2. Where Does the Chain End

2.3. Vulnerabilities of Products

2.3.1. Types of Vulnerability

2.3.2. Vulnerabilities and Product Groups

2.3.3. Food

2.3.4. Quality Loss and Deterioration in Food

2.3.5. Medical Devices and Medicines

2.3.6. Vulnerabilities of Durables

2.3.7. High-turnover Consumer Goods

2.3.8. Industrial Goods in Bulk Packaging

2.3.9. Hazardous Substances and Dangerous Goods

2.4. Packaging Functions: An Overview and Checklist

2.4.1. Packaging Functions

2.4.2. Distinguishing and Arranging Packaging Functions

2.4.3. The Five Sets of Direct Packaging Functions

2.4.4. Packaging Functions at Stages of the Packaging Chain

2.4.5. Functions Resulting from Promising Techniques

2.5. Indirect Packaging Functions

2.5.1. Packaging as Sales Tool

2.5.2. Convenience

2.5.3. Cost Related Functions

2.5.4. Societal Aspects

2.6. The Packaging Triangle

2.7. Conclusion


Chapter 3. Basics of Packaging Design, Methodology, Innovation, and Evaluation

3.1. Introduction

3.2. The Decision Chain in Design

3.2.1. From Marketing to Design

3.2.2. From Design to Engineering

3.2.3. From Engineering to a Running Packaging Line

3.2.4. Design Team

3.3. Innovation to Design

3.4. Design Methodologies in General

3.4.1. The Process of Graphic Packaging Design

3.4.2. The Process of Structural Packaging Design

3.5. Simulation Techniques

3.5.1. Models and Prototypes

3.5.2. Strength

3.5.3. Using the Package

3.5.4. Heating a Package (with Content)

3.5.5. Mechanical Buffering Capacity

3.5.6. Running on the Packaging Line

3.5.7. Costs

3.6. Consumer Acceptance

3.7. Accessibility and Usability of Packaging

3.7.1. Introduction

3.7.2. Usability

3.7.3. A Systematic Approach to Introduce Usability in Packaging Design

3.7.4. Tamper-evident, Pilfer-proof, Child-resistant, Age-related Features of Packaging

3.7.5. Practical Examples of Designing Accessible Packaging

3.7.6. The Challenges of Design

3.8. Design Evaluation and Decision


Chapter 4. A Model of Packaging Design and Decisions

4.1. Analysis of Packaging Design Processes

4.2. Stage-gate Detailing, Modeling and Engineering of Packaging Design Proposals

4.3. Stage-gate Model Proposed and Illustrated

4.4. Entering the First Gate: How the Project Begins

4.5. The Analysis Stage

4.6. Syntheses of New Packaging Ideas

4.7. Simulation of Packaging Concepts

4.8. The Evaluation Stage

4.8.1. A Generic Design Cycle

4.8.2. Design Cycle Applied to Three Main Packaging Functions

4.9. Methods and Decisions




Chapter 5. Packaging Materials, Properties, and Their Packaging Functions

5.1. Introduction

5.2. An Overview of Packaging Materials, Principles of Decision Making

5.3. Materials and the Packed Product

5.3.1. Foods

5.3.2. Chemicals

5.3.3. Durables

5.4. Stresses

5.4.1. Mechanical Hazards

5.4.2. Biological Influences

5.4.3. Migration

5.4.4. Child Resistant Packaging

5.5. Mechanical Influences

5.5.1. Shape Stiffness

5.5.2. Resistance to Stacking

5.5.3. Compressibility

5.5.4. Vibrations

5.5.5. Tensile Strength

5.6. Non-mechanical Stresses

5.6.1. Exposure to Radiation Energy

5.6.2. Absorption of Light

5.6.3. Permeability of Materials

5.6.4. Thermal Insulation

5.6.5. Electrostatic Insulation

5.6.6. Biological Influences

5.6.7. Chemical Influences

5.6.8. Biochemical Influences

5.6.9. Migration Phenomena

5.7. Properties in Practice—Calculations and Cases

5.7.1. Permeation of Gases Through Films as a Function of Time

5.7.2. Cushioning Packaging: Case Study

5.8. Conclusion


Chapter 6. Basics of Packaging Printing Technologies, Adhesives, Labeling, and Sleeving

6.1. Introduction

6.2. Printing Techniques

6.2.1. Three Main Printing Techniques

6.2.2. New Developments in Printing of Packaging

6.3. Adhesives

6.3.1. How Adhesives Work

6.3.2. Adhesive Types

6.3.3. Choosing an Adhesive

6.4. Labeling and Sleeving

6.4.1. Applications of Labels

6.4.2. Carton Sleeves around Trays and Cups


Chapter 7. Paper, Board, and Corrugated Board

7.1. Introduction: Raw Materials and Production Processes

7.1.1. Fibers to Pulp

7.1.2. Pulped Fibers to Paper and Board

7.2. Packaging Applications of Wood Fiber-based Materials

7.2.1. Paper and Board

7.2.2. Folding Boxboard

7.2.3. Corrugated Board

7.2.4. Solid Board

7.2.5. Molded Pulp Packaging

7.2.6. Other Fiber-based Packaging

7.3. Papers as Packaging Material

7.3.1. Reasons to Choose Paper or Laminates with Paper as Packaging Material

7.4. Folding Boxboard

7.4.1. Factors in Selecting Folding Boxboard

7.5. Corrugated Board

7.5.1. Types of Paper Used for Corrugated Boxes

7.5.2. Processing Corrugated Board

7.5.3. Factors Influencing the Choice Between Different Types of Corrugated Boxes

7.6. Solid Board

7.7. Pulp Packaging

7.8. Other Fiber-based Packaging

7.8.1. Future and Market Share


Chapter 8. Plastics

8.1. Introduction

8.1.1. Properties of Plastics Relevant to Packaging Design: Molecular Orientation, Morphology, Polarity

8.1.2. Types of Plastics

8.1.3. The Extruder

8.2. Thermoplastics Used for Packaging

8.2.1. An Overview of Thermoplastics and their Properties Related to Packaging

8.2.2. Other Polymers and Elastomers Used in Packaging

8.3. Plastics Related to Package Flexibility

8.3.1. Flexible Plastic Packaging

8.3.2. Semi-rigid Packaging

8.3.3. Rigid Packaging

8.4. Production Processes of Plastics for Packaging

8.4.1. Injection Molding

8.4.2. Thermoforming

8.4.3. Extrusion Blow Molding

8.4.4. Injection Blow Molding

8.4.5. Production of Plastic Films

8.5. Shrink Films

8.6. Rotational Molding

8.7. Characteristics and Design Principles

8.7.1. Characteristics that Determine the Choice of Plastic and Flexible Materials

8.7.2. Design Principles and Choosing the Right Type of Plastic

8.7.3. Steps in Selecting a Type of Plastic

8.8. List of Abbreviations


Chapter 9. Metal Packaging

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Raw Materials

9.3. Overview of Metals Used for Packaging

9.4. Dimensions and Standardization

9.5. Types of Applications

9.6. Design Engineering Features for Metal Packaging

9.7. Strengths and Weaknesses

9.8. Providing Information

9.9. Production of Metal Packaging

9.10. Caps and Closures

9.10.1. Metal Closures for Bottles

9.10.2. Metal Closures for Jars and Vials

9.10.3. Standardization of Screw Threads

9.10.4. Factors in Choosing Metal Closures

9.11. Coatings

9.12. Sustainability

9.13. Properties that Determine the Choice of Metal Packaging

9.13.1. Shelf Life

9.13.2. Retort

9.13.3. Pressurized Products

9.13.4. Gloss and Other Features

9.13.5. Thermal Properties

9.13.6. High-speed Processing

9.14. Deign Principles and Choosing the Right Type of Metal

9.15. The Future of Steel Packaging


Chapter 10. Glass

10.1. Introduction

10.2. Raw Materials

10.3. Types and Characteristics of Glass

10.3.1. Introduction

10.3.2. Container Glass

10.3.3. Classification of Glass for Pharmaceutical Use

10.4. Manufacture of Glass

10.5. Production of Glass Packaging

10.5.1. Glass Blowing Processes

10.5.2. Production of Glass Packaging by Tube Extrusion

10.5.3. Production of Glass Packaging by Pressing

10.6. Decoration of Glass Containers

10.7. Processing and Closing of Glass Packaging

10.7.1. Processing of Glass Packaging

10.7.2. Closing Glass Packaging

10.8. Applications

10.9. Design Principles for Glass Containers

10.9.1. Introduction

10.9.2. Fundamental Aspects

10.9.3. Design for Ease of Use and Convenience

10.10. Inspection

10.10.1. Type of Faults

10.10.2. Quality Specifications


Chapter 11. Material Combinations

11.1. Introduction

11.2. Laminates

11.2.1. Waxed Laminates

11.2.2. Extrusion Laminates

11.2.3. Co-extrusion Laminates

11.2.4. Adhesive Laminates

11.2.5. Thermal Laminates

11.2.6. Age and Duration of Laminates

11.3. Coatings

11.3.1. Wax Coating

11.3.2. Heat Seal Lacquer Coating

11.3.3. Polyethylene (PE)

11.3.4. Cold Seal Lacquer Coating

11.3.5. Acrylic Coating

11.3.6. PVdC Coating

11.3.7. PVOH Coating

11.3.8. Metal Coating or Metalized Films

11.3.9. SiOx-coating

11.3.10. Polypropylene (PP) Coated Films


Chapter 12. Wood, Ceramics, Cork, Textiles

12.1. Introduction

12.2. Wood

12.3. Ceramics

12.4. Cork

12.5. Textiles




Chapter 13. Setting Up a Packaging Line for Different Types of Packaging

13.1. Introduction

13.1.1. Concept of a Packaging Line

13.1.2. Capacity of Packaging Line

13.2. Start-up Considerations

13.2.1. The Layout of a Packaging Line

13.2.2. Choice of Machinery and Equipment

13.2.3. Product Properties: Options and Restrictions

13.2.4. Dispensing and Automatic Measuring

13.3. Quality Control

13.4. Efficiency of a Packaging Line


Chapter 14. Physical-chemical Methods of Assessment in Practice

14.1. Getting Started

14.2. The Selection of Methods of Assessment

14.3. Vibration Testing

14.4. Chemical-physical Compatibility of Plastic Packaging

14.5. Thermal Insulation

14.6. Drop Test

14.7. Stacking Test and Compression Test

14.8. Inclined impact Test

14.9. Hydraulic Pressure Test

14.10. Global Migration Test

14.11. Tensile Test

14.12. Gas Permeation Through Films and Other Packaging Materials


Chapter 15. Sustainable Packaging Design and the Importance of LCA

15.1. Definitions of Sustainability

15.2. Life Cycle Analysis

15.2.1. Scope

15.2.2. Methodology

15.2.3. Functional Unit

15.2.4. Analysis of the Results

15.2.5. Software, Databases and Results

15.2.6. LCA in Practice

15.3. Final Note on LCA


Chapter 16. Legislation

16.1. Introduction 355

16.2. Legislation on Food Packaging

16.3. Legislation on the Packaging of Dangerous Goods/hazardous Materials

16.4. Legislation on Consumer Packaging

16.5. Legislation on Sustainability

16.6. Legislation on Intellectual Property


Chapter 17. Costs of Packaging, Costs in Relation to the Chain, and the Costs of Failures

17.1. Introduction

17.2. Key Figures of Packaging Costs

17.2.1. Key Figures for Plastic Packaging

17.2.2. Flexible Films

17.2.3. Key Figures for Paper and Board Packaging

17.2.4. Key Figures for Metal Packaging

17.2.5. Key figures for Packed Products

17.3. Integral Cost Approach

17.3.1. Principles of Setting Up a Cost Profit Structure

17.3.2. The Three Main Links in the Packaging Chain

17.3.3. Method: Activity Based Costing (ABC)

17.4. Costs in Relation to Failures in the Packaging Chain

17.4.1. Selected Areas of Failure

17.4.2. Techniques for Addressing Package Failure

17.4.3. Pre- and Post-consumer Problems

17.4.4. Ishikawa Diagram

17.5. Final Remark on Costs of Packaging


Chapter 18. Epilogue

18.1. Introduction



Packaging Design Decisions (Entire eBook)
$95.00 Save: $34.50
Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: The Packaging Chain, Product Vulnerabilities, and Packaging Functions
Chapter 3: Basics of Packaging Design, Methodology, Innovation, and Evaluation
Chapter 4: A Model of Packaging Design and Decisions
Chapter 5: Packaging Materials, Properties, and Their Packaging Functions
Chapter 6: Basics of Packaging Printing Technologies, Adhesives, Labeling, and Sleeving
Chapter 7: Paper, Board, and Corrugated Board
Chapter 8: Plastics
Chapter 9: Metal Packaging
Chapter 10: Glass
Chapter 11: Material Combinations
Chapter 12: Wood, Ceramics, Cork, Textiles
Chapter 13: Setting Up a Packaging Line for Different Types of Packaging
Chapter 14: Physical-chemical Methods of Assessment in Practice
Chapter 15: Sustainable Packaging Design and the Importance of LCA
Chapter 16: Legislation
Chapter 17: Costs of Packaging, Costs in Relation to the Chain, and the Costs of Failures .
Chapter 18: Epilogue

978-1-60595-070-9, ©2019, 400 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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