Introduction to Nonwovens Technology

Subhash K. Batra, Ph.D., Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center, North Carolina State University

Behnam Pourdeyhimi, Ph.D., Nonwovens Institute, North Carolina State University

ISBN: 978-1-60595-037-2, ©2012, 366 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

Student price available

  • Provides a unified and in-depth treatment of raw materials, web formation, bonding and melt-extrusion technologies
  • Includes background information on heat, heat transfer and polymer physics
  • Covers technologies that are proprietary, new or not widely known
  • Introduces the concept of integrative technologies to produce multi-functional products
  • Explains raw material properties and process parameter interactions
  • Designed as a textbook and professional book with problems and exercises

The processing of nonwovens depends on a range of technologies, some adapted from the textile and paper industries, others developed uniquely for nonwovens production. The present volume provides a systematic step-by-step explanation of virtually all processes that integrate relevant raw materials into finished nonwovens for different end uses. In comprehensive terms, the book explains the connection between the structure of nonwovens and the specialized, as well as still evolving, technologies used to produce them-—from simple roll goods to nanoscale webs and fiberwebs. The unified treatment in the book is meant to serve the needs of engineering and technology students. For students and instructors, the text also offers reviews of basic chemistry, polymer physics and heat transfer concepts, which are linked to processing and design information. Problems and exercises are presented for classroom study and individual practice. The book can also be used profitably as a self-teaching tool by professionals working in or new to the nonwovens industry.

From the Foreword by John Hearle

“In comparison with other publications, the present book covers the great diversity of nonwovens and emphasizes how new types of nonwovens can be created through the use of novel fibres. This approach integrates many aspects of fibres and textile structures that are not associated with the conventional forms of nonwovens, which were established over the last fifty years. In this sense the book summarizes existing technical knowledge and suggests ways of going beyond it.”

Foreword
Series Preface
Acknowledgements
Prologue

PART I. USEFUL PRELIMINARIES

1. Definitions

  • What Is a Nonwoven Fabric?
  • Structural Definitions
  • Advantages of the Structural Definitions
  • The Study of Nonwovens Technology: An Impressionistic Approach
  • Problems/Exercises

2. Structure of Thin Webs: The Orientation Distribution Function (ODF)

  • Introduction
  • The Orientation Distribution Function: A Description of Homogeneous Thin-Web Structure
  • Isotropy vs. Anisotropy
  • A Simple Illustration of the Importance of ODF
  • Influence of ODF: A Few Other Examples
  • Problems/Exercises

3. Basic Technologies and Their Augmentations

  • Problems/Exercises

PART II. STAPLE-FIBER BASED TECHNOLOGIES

4. Preparation of Staple Fibers for Web Formation

  • Introduction
  • Opening and Blending of Staple Fiberstock
  • Problems/Exercises

5. Staple Fiber Web Formation: Carding

  • Introduction
  • Basic Elements of the Carding Process
  • Card Clothings and Their Plausible Role
  • Randomizing or Random Rollers: Condensing or Scrambling Rollers
  • Some Recent Developments
  • Aerodynamic Influences in Carding
  • Batt Formation and Card Feeding
  • Does Carding Individualize Fibers?
  • End Use Products
  • Problems/Exercises

6. Staple Fiber Web Formation: Airlay

  • Introduction
  • Airlay for Non-Wood-Pulp Fibers
  • Airlay for Wood Pulp
  • Application Markets
  • Problems/Exercises

PART III. BONDING TECHNOLOGIES

7. Needlepunch Bonding

  • Historical Context
  • Needlepunch Bonding
  • Needlepunching Technology
  • Properties of Conventional Needle punched Fabrics
  • Fibers Used and Potential Markets
  • Special Purpose Needle Looms
  • Problems/Exercises
  • Appendix

8. Hydroentanglement Bonding

  • Historical Context
  • The Core of the Technology
  • Bonding Mechanism and Fiber Characteristics
  • The Degree of Bonding
  • Fabric Properties and Applications
  • Application Markets
  • Problems/Exercises
  • Appendix 8.A
  • Appendix 8.B

9. Thermal Bonding

  • Introduction
  • Prerequisites for Thermal Bonding
  • Bonding Technologies
  • Problems/Exercises

9H. Heat and Steam: Concepts, Definitions, Relevance to Thermal Bonding

  • Introduction
  • Conduction and Its Relevance
  • Convection and Its Relevance
  • Radiation and Its Relevance
  • On Steam and Its Relevance

10. Resin/Chemical Bonding

  • Introduction
  • Latex Binders
  • Classes of Latex Binders and Their Characteristics
  • How Does the Bond Form?
  • Thermoset Resins
  • Application Technologies
  • Drying/Curing
  • Application Markets
  • Problems/Exercises

PART IV. INTEGRATED TECHNOLOGIES

11. The Wetlay Process

  • Historical Context
  • The Technology
  • Properties of Wetlaid Nonwovens
  • Application Markets
  • Problems/Exercises

12. Melt-Extrusion Technologies: The Spunbond Process

  • Introduction
  • Broad Overview: Spunbond Technology
  • Preparation and Web Formation: Evolution
  • Product Characteristics
  • Product Markets
  • Problems/Exercises

12P. Polymer/Fiber Physics-A Brief Overview

  • Introduction
  • Preliminary Definitions and Concepts
  • Viscosity
  • About Fiber Spinning and Property Development 235

13. Melt-extrusion Technologies: The Meltblowing Process

  • Introduction and Historical Context
  • The Technology
  • Fabric Characteristics
  • Problems/Exercises
  • Appendix

14. Fibrillated/Split/Slit Film and Nanoscale Webs (Flash-spinning, Electro-spinning and Bicomponent-Based)

  • Fibrillated/Perforated Film Nonwovens
  • Flash-Spun Nonwovens
  • Electrospun Webs
  • Micro and Nanoscale Fiberwebs via Bicomponent Fibers

PART V. WINDING IT UP

15. Integrative Technologies: Stitch-bonding, Co-forming, Napco, Lamination, Resin-bonding

  • Introduction
  • Stitch-bonding/Stitch-knitting
  • Co-forming Technology
  • NAPCO Technology: 3-D weblinker
  • Lamination as an Integrative Process
  • Resin-bonding as an Integrative Process

16. Raw Materials: Properties and Use in Fiberweb Nonwovens

  • Introduction
  • Manufactured Fibers/Resins
  • Problems/Exercises

Index

ISBN: 978-1-60595-037-2, ©2012, 366 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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