Food Drying Science and Technology

Microbiology, Chemistry, Applications

Edited by: Y.H. Hui, C. Clary, M.M. Farid, O.O. Fasina, A. Noomhorm, and J. Welti-Chanes

ISBN: 978-1-932078-56-5, ©2008, 807 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

  • A definitive guide to all major food drying techniques and equipment
  • Latest technologies for meats, fruits, vegetables, and seafood
  • Covers microbial issues and safety
  • Newest designs for drying systems and manufacturing lines

Here, in one source, is the scientific information needed for high-quality and high-throughput removal of water from many different foods. All major food drying manufacturing operations are illustrated, with key design information for each stage.

This book makes clear the principles of food drying and the mathematical techniques for analyzing drying processes. At the same time it provides details on how drying is now done within the global food industry, e.g., how drying lines are designed and set up. Using the most current numerical and empirical data, the authors show how various types of drying affect the chemistry and sensory properties of foods. Key information is also furnished on microbial safety, preservation, and packaging.

Preface

1. Fundamentals of Food Dehydration
Shyam S. Sablani and M. Shafiur Rahman

  • Introduction
  • Mechanisms of Mass Transport
  • Molecular Diffusion/Moisture Diffusivity in Foods
  • Mass Transfer Coefficient
  • Water Activity and Water Sorption Isotherms
  • Drying Rate Curves
  • Quality of Dried Products
  • Nomenclature
  • References

2. Unified Approach to the Analysis of the Different Drying Processes
Mohammed Farid

  • Introduction
  • Numerical Analysis of Moving Boundary Problems
  • Quasi-Steady State Analysis for Drying of Flat Geometry (The Unified Approach)
  • Model Validation against Some Experimental Measurements (Flat Geometry)
  • Quasi-Steady-State Analysis for Spherical Geometry (The Unified Model)
  • Theoretical Prediction of Complete Drying/Frying Time of Foods of Different Geometry Using the Unified Model
  • Validity of the Unified Model for the Prediction of Drying/Frying Time of Food Materials Having Different Geometry
  • Nomenclature
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

3. Food Dehydration and Developing Countries
Chua Kian Jon and Chou Siaw Kiang

  • Introduction
  • Solar Drying
  • Infrared Drying
  • Biomass Dryer
  • Low Cost Convective Dryers
  • Fluidized Bed Dryer
  • Spouted Bed Dryer
  • Conclusions
  • References

4. Solar Assisted Drying of Foods
Aurelio Lopez-Malo and Luis Rios-Casas

  • Introduction
  • Food Dehydration Basis
  • Solar Drying
  • Types of Solar Dryers
  • Air-Heating Collectors
  • Effect of Drying on Food Products
  • Conclusion
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

5. Rotary Drum Dryers
Sudhagar Mani and Shahab Sokhansanj

  • Introduction
  • Classifications
  • Design Considerations
  • Heat and Mass Transfer Model
  • Residence Time Model
  • Dryer Control System
  • Cost Estimation
  • Conclusions
  • Nomenclature
  • References

6. Microwave Drying
Heping Li and Hosahalli S. Ramaswamy

  • Introduction
  • Microwave Theory and Characteristics
  • Mechanisms of Microwave Heating
  • Microwave Drying
  • Selection Considerations for Microwave Drying
  • Microwave Drying Equipment
  • Microwave Drying Applications
  • Conclusions
  • References

7. Far Infrared Dehydration and Processing
S. Cenkowski, S. D. Arntfield, and M. G. Scanlon

  • Fundamental Laws
  • Direct Radiative Heat Transfer
  • Penetration Depth and Absorptivity
  • IR Heat Sources
  • Mathematical Modeling of IR Drying
  • Benefits of IR Processing of Foods and Feeds
  • Future Directions
  • References

8. Vacuum Drying
Athapol Noomhorm and Imran Ahmad

  • Introduction
  • Mechanism of Drying Under Vacuum
  • Equilibrium Moisture Content Under Vacuum
  • Applications of Vacuum Drying
  • Alternate Heat Sources
  • Vacuum Drying Effects on Food Quality
  • References

9. Spray Drying and Powder Properties
Bhesh Bhandari

  • Introduction
  • Principles of Dehydration of Droplets
  • Components of a Spray Drying System
  • Single- and Two-Stage Drying
  • Thermal Efficiency
  • Key Performance Indicator of Spray Dryers
  • Operating Variables of Spray Dryer
  • Spray Dried Powder Properties
  • References

10. Heat Pump and Dehumidification Drying
C. G. Carrington

  • Introduction
  • Heat Pump Drying Technology
  • Design of Heat Pump Dryers
  • Contributions to Product Quality
  • Summary
  • References

11. Osmotic Dehydration of Foods
John Shi

  • Introduction
  • Applications of Osmotic Dehydration in Food Processing
  • Major Factors of Osmotic Dehydration
  • Mass Transfer Characteristics During Osmotic Dehydration
  • Review of Existing Models for Osmotic Dehydration
  • Future Development
  • Acknowledgements
  • References

12. Novel Drying Technologies
Tadeusz Kudra

  • Intermittent Drying
  • Drying of Liquid and Pasty Materials in a Modified Spouted Bed with Counter-Rotating Streams of Inert Particles
  • Drying With Granulation
  • Multispout Fluid Bed Dryer
  • Pulsed Fluid-Bed Dryer
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

13. Vacuum Fluidized Bed Drying
B. U. Kozanoglu and J. Welti-Chanes

  • Introduction
  • Hydrodynamics of a Vacuum Fluidized Bed
  • Drying Process in a Vacuum Fluidized Bed
  • Conclusions
  • Nomenclature
  • References

14. Packaging and Storage of Dried Foods
Qingyue Ling and Yanyun Zhao

  • Introduction
  • Functions of Food Packaging
  • Components of Food Packaging
  • Key Factors in Dried Food Packaging and Storage
  • Packaging Materials for Dried Foods
  • Packaging Technologies for Dried Foods
  • Storage for Dried Foods
  • References

15. Food Drying Equipment and Design
P. K. Bansal and K. Y. Chung (Agnes)

  • Introduction
  • Solar Dryers
  • Contact Dryers
  • Spray Dryers
  • Fluidised Bed Dryers
  • Freeze Dryers
  • Dielectric Dryers
  • Selection Procedure of a Drying System
  • Conclusion
  • References

16. Freeze-Drying
Stella M. Alzamora, Fidel Vergara-Balderas, and Jorge Welti-Chanes

  • Introduction
  • Freeze-Drying Stages
  • Heat and Mass Transfer in Freeze-Drying
  • Influence of Parameters
  • Components of a Freeze-Dryer
  • Conclusions
  • References

17. Freeze-Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Process Variables, Quality, and Stability
Aurelio Lopez-Malo and Enrique Palou

  • Introduction
  • Process Conditions
  • Quality and Stability
  • Final Remarks
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

18. Freeze-Drying of Meats and Seafood
A. Valdez-Fragoso, L. D. Arguelles-Pina, O. Martinez-Garcia and H. Mujica-Paz

  • Introduction
  • Physical Structure
  • Sensory Properties
  • Stability
  • Glass Transition
  • Conclusions
  • References

19. Specialty Foods
Daniela Bermudez-Aguirre, Maria S. Tapia, and Jorge Welti-Chanes

  • Introduction
  • Space Mission Foods
  • Military Foods
  • Foods for Special Diets
  • Foods for Sports Groups
  • Foods for Pets
  • Other Freeze-Dried Foods
  • Final Remarks
  • References

20. Banana Dehydration
Krzysztof N. Waliszewski and Violeta T. Pardio

  • Banana as an Industrial Commodity
  • Banana Processing
  • General Considerations of Dehydration
  • Banana Osmotic Dehydration
  • Banana Combined Drying
  • Banana Solar Drying
  • Banana Frying
  • Banana Freeze Drying
  • General Conclusions
  • References

21. Drying of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and Mango Products
Ponciano S. Madamba

  • Introduction
  • Quality of Dried Mango Products
  • Drying and Dehydration Systems of Fruits and Vegetables
  • Optimization of Drying Processes
  • Appropriate Drying Technologies
  • Conclusions
  • References

22. Pear Drying
Raquel de Pinho Ferreira Guine

  • Introduction
  • Shrinkage Characteristics
  • Sorption Isotherms
  • Drying Kinetics
  • Moisture Diffusivity
  • Commercial Drying
  • Acknowledgment
  • References

23. Drying of Plums
Marisa Di Matteo, Luciano Cinquanta, and Silvestro Crescitelli

  • Introduction
  • Plum Drying Kinetics and Modeling
  • The Effect of Drying on Plums Quality
  • Nomenclature
  • References

24. Chili (Capsicum annuum) Drying
Rosa María Galicia-Cabrera

  • Introduction
  • Origin
  • Taxonomy and Anatomy
  • Production
  • Harvesting
  • Drying of Ripened Chilies
  • Other Dry Chilies
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

25. Onion Drying
Maria Joao Barroca and Raquel de Pinho Ferreira Guine

  • Introduction
  • Chemical and Physical Properties
  • Sorption Isotherms
  • Drying Kinetics
  • Commercial Drying
  • References

26. Tomato Dehydration
Henry T. Sabarez

  • Introduction
  • The Production of Dried Tomatoes
  • Tomato Drying Process
  • Factors Affecting Tomato Drying
  • Methods of Drying Tomatoes
  • Quality of Dried Tomatoes
  • Modeling the Drying Kinetics of Tomatoes
  • References

27. Drying Behavior of Starches and Gels
Ferhunde Us, E. Aytunga Aryk, and Didem Uzman Lenz

  • Introduction
  • Sorption Isotherms of Starch
  • The Drying of Starches and Gels
  • Conclusions
  • References

28. Deep-Fat Frying of Potatoes
Pedro Moyano and Franco Pedreschi

  • Introduction
  • Deep-Fat Frying of Potatoes
  • French Fries
  • Potato Chips
  • Oil Uptake in Fried Potatoes
  • Modeling the Deep-Fat Frying Process
  • Microstructure of Fried Potatoes
  • Acrylamide Formation in Fried Potatoes
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

29. Pasta Drying
A. McNabb and R. S. Anderssen

  • Introduction
  • The Composition and Structure of Pasta
  • Water Content of Pasta
  • Porosity of Pasta
  • Volume Changes versus Water Content Changes
  • Equilibrium States
  • Compressive Drying Stresses
  • Compressibility of the Solid Phase
  • Young’s Modulus
  • The Dynamics of Drying
  • The Three Phases of Internal Drying
  • Conclusions
  • Appendix 1. Compressive Drying Stresses Due to Surface Tension Effects
  • Appendix 2. Enthalpy Changes during Drying
  • Appendix 3. Enthalpy Changes Due to Surface Tension
  • Acknowledgments
  • References

30. Milk Powders
P. M. Kelly

  • Introduction
  • Milk Powder Properties
  • Relationship Between Spray Drying Conditions and Powder Properties
  • Adapted Processing Protocols for the Manufacture of Different Types of Milk Powders
  • Milk Powder Functionality and Selected Applications
  • Quality Assurance and Food Safety Aspects
  • Conclusions
  • References

31. Dehydration of Muscle Foods
Antoine Collignan, Sunita Santchurn, and Nadine Zakhia-Rozis

  • Introduction
  • Techniques for Meat Dehydration
  • Classification of Dehydrated Meat Products
  • Evolution of Meat Quality During Dehydration and Storage
  • Conclusion
  • References

32. Fish Drying
Jose P. Peralta

  • Introduction
  • Fish as Food
  • Fish Spoilage
  • Salting as a Compliment to Drying
  • Fish Drying Principles
  • Methods of Fish Drying
  • General Fish Drying Process
  • Product Forms
  • Dried Fish Quality and Defects
  • References

Index

Food Drying Science and Technology (Entire eBook)
$145.00 Save: $44.50
Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Food Dehydration
$25.00
Chapter 2: Unified Approach to the Analysis of the Different Drying Processes
$25.00
Chapter 3: Food Dehydration and Developing Countries
$25.00
Chapter 4: Solar Assisted Drying of Foods
$25.00
Chapter 5: Rotary Drum Dryers
$25.00
Chapter 6: Microwave Drying
$25.00
Chapter 7: Far Infrared Dehydration and Processing
$25.00
Chapter 8: Vacuum Drying
$25.00
Chapter 9: Spray Drying and Powder Properties
$25.00
Chapter 10: Heat Pump and Dehumidification Drying
$25.00
Chapter 11: Osmotic Dehydration of Foods
$25.00
Chapter 12: Novel Drying Technologies
$25.00
Chapter 13: Vacuum Fluidized Bed Drying
$25.00
Chapter 14: Packaging and Storage of Dried Foods
$25.00
Chapter 15: Food Drying Equipment and Design
$25.00
Chapter 16: Freeze-Drying
$25.00
Chapter 17: Freeze-Drying of Fruits and Vegetables: Process Variables, Quality, and Stability
$25.00
Chapter 18: Freeze-Drying of Meats and Seafood
$25.00
Chapter 19: Specialty Foods
$25.00
Chapter 20: Banana Dehydration
$25.00
Chapter 21: Drying of Mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and Mango Products
$25.00
Chapter 22: Pear Drying
$25.00
Chapter 23: Drying of Plums
$25.00
Chapter 24: Chili (Capsicum annuum) Drying
$25.00
Chapter 25: Onion Drying
$25.00
Chapter 26: Tomato Dehydration
$25.00
Chapter 27: Drying Behavior of Starches and Gels
$25.00
Chapter 28: Deep-Fat Frying of Potatoes
$25.00
Chapter 29: Pasta Drying
$25.00
Chapter 30: Milk Powders
$25.00
Chapter 31: Dehydration of Muscle Foods
$25.00
Chapter 32: Fish Drying
$25.00

ISBN: 978-1-932078-56-5, ©2008, 807 pages, 6×9, Hardcover

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