Additive Manufacturing of Metals

Materials, Processes, Tests, and Standards

Leila Ladani, Ph.D., Professor of Mechanical Engineering, Director, The Polytechnic School, Arizona State University

978-1-60595-600-8, August 2020, 265 pages, 6×9, HC book

  • Techniques for manufacturing parts with powder bed fusion
  • Investigates the physics of the process including variations between laser and e-beam heat sources
  • Discusses the thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer formulation for processes
  • Explains the microstructures of metals and their variations due to powder bed processes
  • Analytic details on the micro- and macrolevels for common materials fabricated using powder bed processes such as titanium, nickel, aluminum and more
  • Provides methods for assessing quality and reliability of parts
  • Spells out the standards governing the quality and safety of AM production methods

This book is a technical introduction to additive manufacturing (AM) with a focus on powder bed fusion and metals. It provides the theory and industry-based practices to design, make, and test metal components via AM. After outlining the methods and materials of powder bed methods, the book explains the workings and physical limitations of electron beam and laser melt technologies in manufacturing parts, using a variety of metal powders. In this context, the physics of powder melting is described, as well as the effects of temperature variables on the properties of a part. The critical elements of how powder feedstock is chosen and formulated are explained. Processing methods are described using original design and engineering parameters developed by the author. Information is provided on current test methods of metals produced by AM, as well as how to carry out quality control, monitor reliability, and implement safety standards. For process design, a section is devoted to modeling.

Each chapter includes a set of problems for students and practitioners that reflect metals’ fabrication in industry.


From the Preface

“For the specific technology that is the focus of this book, powder bed fusion technology, the raw material is discussed. Conditions under which these materials are produced, and their required characteristics are explained. Additionally, the book covers the standards that have been developed to date on additive manufacturing. These standards play a very important role in the qualification, certification, and application of this technology, especially aerospace.”


From the Foreword

David Bourell, University of Texas at Austin

“Professor Ladani has gathered into a single source an impressive collection of information dealing with the salient aspects of metal AM, which will appeal to a broad audience. This text distinguishes itself from others by its permeating materials.”

Foreword
Preface
Introduction

Chapter 1. Additive Manufacturing Processes

1.1. Material Disposition Process
1.2. Powder Bed Processes
1.3. Liquid Bed Processes
1.4. Problems
1.5. References

Chapter 2. Powder Bed Technology

2.1. Process Physics
2.2. Problems
2.3. References

Chapter 3. Computer Interface and Modeling of Process

3.1. Current Software Interfaces for Powder Bed Processes
3.2. Modeling and Simulation of the Process
3.3. Materials and Microstructural Modeling
3.4. Problems
3.5. References

Chapter 4. Materials and Microstructure of Parts Made Using Powder Bed Process

4.1. Titanium
4.2. Ti Fabricated in EBM and Laser Powder Bed Processes
4.3. Ni Alloys
4.4. Highly Conductive and Reflective Metals
4.5. Other Materials
4.6. Problems
4.7. References

Chapter 5. Mechanical Properties of Parts Made Using Powder Bed Process

5.1. Important Mechanical Characteristics
5.2. Plastic Behavior
5.3. Plastic Deformation in AM Parts
5.4. Fatigue and Dynamic Behavior
5.5. Problems
5.6. References

Chapter 6. Raw Material

6.1. Powder Technology
6.2. Production Techniques
6.3. Recycling
6.4. Problems
6.5. References

Chapter 7. Qualification and Standardization Process

7.1. Basic Concepts
7.2. Current AM Standards and Certifications
7.3. Problems
7.4. References

Chapter 8. Current Gaps and Future Trends

8.1. Current Gaps
8.2. Future Trends and Potential
8.3. References

Index

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